Słownik O

Geography Maps Slownik Geograficzny Slownik O

Slownik Geograficzny Translations


1) Forestry district in Pluchow, in the Złoczów powiat.


2) also known as Góra Obertasowa [Obertasów Mountain], attached to Zazule and the folwark there, powiat Złoczów.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 323]


This translation, by Donald A. Szumowski, is used by Permission.  All rights reserved.


Obielewo, also known as Obielawy, Obylewo, the village is located on the south bank of the Noltec, in the powiat/County of Szubin, in the Archiepiscopal of the Catholic Church at Znin – Gora. Obielewo lies about 7 ½ km to the south of Labiszyna near the road to the Railway Station to Mogilno some 28 km distant. Obielewo is an area of about 483 hectares said to produce clean revenues of 3803 German Marks. There are 6 homes / farmsteads, 98 inhabitants,  63 Catholic, 35 protestant. It was first mentioned in a Papal Bull of July 7, 1136 confirming the dominion of the Archbishop of Gniezno over, a number of settlements including Obielewo. Early tax lists confirm the existence of 27 privately owned homesteads in the vicinity the shore of the Noltec, in the present day along the shores are also wetlands and bogs (Kod. Wielkop., 7). In the 16th century there came into existence here a “Folwark” or large manorial farmstead. The Parish Priest ? Rector of the Church at Znin Gora levied a tithe on the peasants and estate fields. (Laski, Lib. Ben. I, 151) According to old lists in the year 1577 Obielewo comprised about 2 ½ Slad ( about 400 morgs) and in 1579 1 ½ Slad (bout 200 morgs), 5 zagrod or small farmsteads with buildings, gardens and courtyards.  (Pawinski, Wiekop. I, 184). In the year 1846 the Manor Obielewa was the property of Sylwester Slawski, currently of Niemiec. E. Cal.



Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p.327]


This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.

Oborniki (Kreis Obornik)

Oborniki, in German Obornik, is a county seat in the Grand Duchy of Poznań. It is located about 30 km. north of Poznań, at latitude 52 degrees 39 minutes north, longitude 34 degrees 28 minutes east [measured from Ferro], on the elevated right bank of the Warta river, near the mouth of the Wełna river. It has a station of the Poznań-Piła railway, a telegraph station, and a post office with posts arriving daily. The town is the administrative center of a deanery, and has an Evangelical superintendent, a landed proprietors’ counselor , and a district commissioner. Also in Oborniki are a royal county treasury, a savings bank, a master-builder’s office, a customs office, a Polish loan society, and Polish and German agronomical societies. The inhabitants are employed in farming, milling, distilling alcohol, the lumber trade, and manufacturing starch, bricks, and drainage pipes. About 60,000 quintals of flour, 9,000 hectoliters of aqua vitae [a kind of liquor], and 50,000 quintals of starch are produced here each year. The lumber trade produces annual sales of about a million marks. The town maintains a wooden bridge on the Warta; a second bridge was built by the directors of the railway.


There are two Catholic churches here, one Evangelical church, and one Old Lutheran church, as well as a synagogue. At one time there were six Catholic churches. The parish church, rebuilt after a fire in 1815, has lost its original shape completely; it is said to have contained the tombstones of the Zebrzydowskis and a baptismal font from the 13th or 14th century. In the 17th century there was also a Rosary Guild. The church of the Holy Spirit, founded and endowed in 1356 by Maciej, the sołtys of Oborniki, was moved to nearby Bogdanowo in 1747. The church of St. Barbara, founded in 1599 and renovated in 1778 through the efforts of Łucja Łojczykowska, a townswoman of Oborniki, was in the nearby village of Rożnowo. The church of the Holy Cross, on the right bank of the Wełna, existed before 1604; in 1788 a new church was built, on the site of the old one, also by Ł. Łojczykowska, and in 1749 the Brotherhood of the Heart of Jesus was established there. The church of the Holy Trinity was founded by the city before 1600 and was renovated in 1781 through the efforts of the abovementioned Łojczykowska. A church and monastery of the Franciscan Fathers, built in 1768 of fired brick, was handed over in recent times to the Lutheran congregation. 141 hectares of land belongs to the pastor of the Oborniki parish, with a net income of 657 marks from the land. The town itself possesses 96 hectares with a net income of 381 marks.


The population has grown here as follows: in 1795 there were 750 inhabitants; 940 in 1811; 1,003 in 1816; 1,499 in 1837; 1,530 in 1841; 1,685 in 1843; 1,796 in 1858; 2,007 in 1861; 2,174 in 1871; 2,397 in 1878; and 2,812 in 1883. At the end of the 18th century there were: 14 carpenters, 13 bakers, 6 coopers, 6 wheelwrights, 5 dry goods merchants, 4 clothiers, 4 furriers, 3 potters and 2 each of capmakers, makers of shoe lasts, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, carpenters, butchers, lathe-turners, masons, metal workers, glaziers, as well as 5 musicians, 3 barbers, and 3 merchants. At the end of the 15th century Piotr Wedelicki was born here; he was a doctor of medicine, Kraków councilor, and a translator of Latin. He translated three treatises of Hippocrates, published 1532–1535 by Wietor in Kraków. The widespread tale of the founding in 1292 of a Franciscan monastery in this Oborniki seems to be very dubious. When Andrzej, the bishop of Poznań, was dividing his diocese into archdeaneries in 1298, he said nothing about Oborniki in the relevant document. But there is a high probability that a church already existed there next to the citadel and castle. The next year, on March 27th, when Władysław Łokietek was staying in Oborniki, he signed a grant to Jan, the son of Dzierżysław, in the presence of Kiełcz, the castellan of Gniezno; Ubisław, the cupbearer of Kalisz; Włost, the castellan of Drzeń [or Drzeńsk?]; and other dignitaries. Also in 1303 a parish priest of Oborniki is mentioned.


During the reign of the Silesian Piasts, in 1312, Oborni became a county seat. In Great Poland charters we find under 1339 a wójt and three Oborniki council members. In 1456 Maciej, the sołtys of Oborniki, provided an endowment for Holy Spirit church in Oborniki, which he had founded. In 1365 King Kazimierz confirmed charters he had given to the monastery of Łekno. In 1370 Przecław, general of Great Poland and voivode of Kalisz, sold to Idzi, the sołtys of Nowa Wieś, two royally-owned mills on the river Wełna near Oborniki. In 1383, during domestic insurrections, Domarat, the castellan of Poznań, occupied the town and encamped there with his army from February 17th to March 8th, ravaging the vicinity of Poznań, Buk and Wronki. The wójt of Oborniki at the time was Janusz, related to Bodzęta of Brześć and the Skoras of Gaj, who was attacked and killed in 1384 by Świdra, castellan of Nakło, near Przecław. In 1394 in Oborniki King Władysław issued a charter exempting several commanders’ properties from all taxes. The same king, during his journey through Great Poland in 1409, stopped in Oborniki and received delegates from Ulrich von Jungingen, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. It was here in 1414 that he bequeathed Marcin of Sławsk 20 grzywnas for Ceków. In 1416 he wrote from here to the Teutonic Knights’ commander of Człuchów to demand an explanation for why he and several horsemen had approached the gates of the castle of Drahim [Drawsko] during a cease-fire. It was also here in 1424 that he announced the contents of a bull of indulgence dated December 1st of the preceding year.


In 1458 Oborniki provided 15 foot soldiers, i. e., as many as Międzyrzecz, Gostyń, Koło and Konin. In 1480 Katarzyna of Oborniki (Obornicka) of the coat of arms Abdank, the daughter of Mikołaj Skora of Gaj, the castellan of Kalisz, was the abbess of the convent in Owińska. These Skoras signed their name as Obornicki, from the city and starosta’s property of Oborniki, of which they were tenants. The town had a charter based on German law. Unfortunately the charter was destroyed during a fire, but it was renewed on 15 March 1485 by King Kazimierz IV, on the basis of a copy of the original document that had been preserved. From that point on the prefects’ abuse of their power subsided, and the city started to grow and develop. On the hill near the mouth of the Wełna river stood the starosta’s castle, which was destroyed during the First Swedish War. Later starostas built a wooden house there, which still existed still as of the end of the last century.


In a document from 1488 we encounter Szymon of Oborniki, the pastor of Kościelec. In 1512, through the intercession of Jerzy Obornicki-Skora of Gaj, Zygmunt I confirmed two documents of the Teutonic Order dated 1363 and 1393 concerning the village of Zielona in the district of Zawkrze. As of 1599 the church of Saint Barbara stood in Oborniki. In 1580 the town paid 84 złotys and 27 groszy 50 of the tax called szos, and and 569 złotys, 10 groszy, 6 denariuses of liquor tax. In 1656 the Swedes demolished Oborniki. During the Seven Years War (1756 – 1763) the Russian Army entrenched itself there. In 1767, with the permission of the Sejm of 1773–1775, Kacper Rogaliński, the starosta of Nakło, exchanged his hereditary estates of Kadzew, Marszew, Bodzieniów, and Maksymilianów for the lease of the Oborniki starosta’s office and the office of the wójt. The Sejm of 1773–1775 confirmed this exchange. In 1771 the Oborniki starosta’s office paid a kwarta of 2,393 złotys, 15 groszy, and a hyberna of 337 złotys and 21 groszy. A commission appointed by the Sejm of 1773–1775 was to settle border disputes between the abovementioned starosta and lords of Niemieczkowo.


Before 1793 Oborniki belonged to the county and province of Poznań. During the period of Southern Prussia’s existence, the Oborniki tenancy was held by General Węgorzewski. During the Poznań rebellions in 1848 Germans from Oborniki joined the “Netzebrüder” organization [the “Brothers of the Netze”], which opposed these movements. When the line of demarcation between Polish and German parts of the Grand Duchy of Poznań was established, Oborniki was incorporated into the German Empire. The city seal shows the Polish eagle beneath a baldachin canopy spread across two columns.


The vicinity of Oborniki includes many prehistoric burial grounds. Circa 1843 a pagan burial ground was excavated near the city, in which several hundred urns were found standing alongside each other. The complete story of this find is given in the Leszno paper Przyjaciel Ludu from that year, in volume 10, page 114. Among the items excavated was an portraying a human face and covered with a pointed lid. In more recent times, in addition to numerous urns, various pots, stone hammers, and the like have been dug up. Some of them are in the collection of the Poznań Society of the Friends of Science (PTPN). Opposite to the city, on the left bank of the Warta, there are old embankments. Near the town there are said to be salt springs and hills with minerals (see Raczyński’s Wspomnienia Wielkopolskie, I, 158, and Rzączyński’s Historia naturalis curiosa). Recently near the railroad station a mammoth’s tooth and vertebrae were dug up.


The gmina of Oborniki consists of the town (174 houses, 2,174 inhabitants), and Huby Bąblińskie [now Bąbliniec]: Ludwigsthal (3 houses, 12 inhabitants), Paulusau (1 house, 6 inhabitants), Martinsau (1 house, 16 inhabitants), Toepferost (1 house, 9 inhabitants), as well as Rudki Małe and Rudki Wielkie (4 houses, 66 inhabitants). As of 1871 the total was 184 houses, 2,283 inhabitants, 1,143 of them Catholics, 836 Protestants, and 304 Jews. In 1845 there were 135 houses and 1,526 inhabitants: 714 Catholics, 486 Protestants, 326 Jews.


In 1589 the parish of Oborniki consisted of the following properties: Bogdanowo, Dąbrówka, Gołaszyn, Gołębowo, Kowanówko, Kowanowo, Nowy Folwark, Nowy Młyn, Słoniawy, Stara Wieś, Uścikowo, and Młyn Wojtowski.


The deanery of Oborniki includes the parishes of Boruszyn, Cerekwica, Chojnica, Kaźmierz, Kiekrz, Kiszewo, Ludomy, Łukowo, Obiezierze [now Objezierze], Oborniki, Obrzycko, Połajewo, Rożnowo, Ryczywół, Słopanowo, Sobota, Stobnica, Szamotuły, Wyszyny, and Żydowo. Previously the following parishes also belonged to this deanery: Chludowo, Ojcieszyn, and Radzim.


The Oborniki powiat [county] has an area of 1,095 square km.; it lies between latitudes 52 degrees 30 minutes and 52 degrees 54 minutes north, and longitudes 34 degrees 11minutes and 34 degrees 52 minutes east [again, these are measured from Ferro]. To the north it borders on the counties of Czarnków and Chodzież, to the east Wągrowiec and Gniezno counties, to the south Środa and Poznań counties, and to the west Szamotuły and Czarnków. The surface of Oborniki county is a plain with hills scattered along it here and there. In terms of its physical composition we can divide it into four significantly different parts: 1) an unwooded riverside, 2) a wooded, marshy region, 3) a upland with little water, and 4) forests, fields, meadows and waters.


The first part covers the southern section of the county, along the left bank of the Warta. There are only remnants left of the old forests here, as for instance near Radzim, Gołaszyn, Niemieczkowo, Sycyn, as well as smaller fragments such as near Ocieszyn and Popowo; but they do not give this part only prominent character. The meadows, on the other hand, are found next to almost every settlement; they cover the valley of the river Samica Kiekrska (which flows out of lake Pamiątkowo) and of the stream that arises near Popowo and flows into the Samica Szamotulska; lake Sycyn also flows into the latter Samica. Flowing into the Warta, besides the Samica Kiekrska, are the streams Jaryszewski and Gołaszyński. The Samica Kiekrska flows in two beds from Imbierowo to what was once lake Objezierze; with its eastern bed it forms a pond above Zielątkowo and a small lake between Wargowo and Kowalewko. The streams Jaryszewski and Gołaszyński, as well as the Samica Kiekrska with its outflowing lake Pamiątkowo, flow to the north, while the stream Popowska flows south, and the outflow of lake Sycyn flows west.


This part of the county has two paved roads: one from Oborniki to Szamotuły through Uścikowo, Chrustowo, Urbanie, and Popówko, 12 km. long; and one from Oborniki to Poznań through Bogdanowo and Ocieszyn, 8 km. long. The Poznań-Piła railway, with a stop in Wargowo, crosses this road in Ocieszyn. The Poznań-Szczecin railway crosses the county’s border near Przecław and Baborowo.


The second distinct part of the county is formed by an area between the rivers Wełna and Warta, the border of Czarnków county, Tarnówko, Boruszyn, Ludomy, and Ruda Pogozińska. There are forests here at Stobnica, Podlesie, Bąblin, Oborniki, Dąbrowka. Oborniki, Bąblin, Kiszewo, Kiszewko, and Stobnica, with their settlements, push from the north to those forests, among which are various forest districts as well as the settlements of Podlesie, Ludomskie Holendry, Bagna, Nowa Myśl, Nowe Holendry, Dąbrówka Leśna, and Rudki. In the northern part of these forests are large “Bagna” [Swamps] surrounded by marshy meadows called “Wielka Płonka.” On their northern edge there are marshes named “Kończak” that stretch northeast almost 8 kilometers to Połajewo and Sierakówko. The settlement Bagna lies among the meadows; Nowa Myśl is surrounded on three sides by meadows; the Golnica flows along meadows from the mill Smolarz to its outlet into the Wełna, which also flows along the meadows near Oborniki. There are also meadows near Bąblin, Kiszewo, Kiszewko and Stobnica.


From the north, between the forests of Stobnica and Podlesie, flows the stream Boguszyński. Fortified by small streams, it flows into the Warta at Stobnica. A small stream flows from Nowa Myśl to the Warta in Kiszewko. Another, parallel to the Warta, flows into it between Kiszewo and Kiszewko. The river Wełna changes its course to the south at Ruda Rogozińska, collecting the waters of the Golnica, which flows into it from the north. South of Płonka, which surrounds the large swamps called Bagna, there are hills called Orle and Krzywe Góry.


From the northern edge of these woods, which formerly joined with those of Krucz, Czarnków, and Wyszynki, the forested region of this part of the county ends, and a flat, plateau with few trees and little water begins. Meadows of some size are found here at Ninino, Sierakówko, Połajewo, and Tłukawy. From the borders of Czarnków county to the Golnica there is not a single river or lake; the streams and creeks that wind here and there in this area flow without any clear outlet or direction. The eastern stretch of this part of the county is encircled by the Golnica and Wełna rivers. The Golnica flows out of Lake Gębice in Chodzież county; it flows southward and picks up small streams until it empties into the Wełna. On the banks of the Golnica is the small town of Ryczywół, and on the Wełna is Rogoźno. Above Rogoźno the Rudka, which flows out of Wągrowiec county, flows into the Wełna. The more sizable hills in this area are those called Długa, Grabowska and Lisia Góra [“fox mountain”]. The road from Oborniki to Czarnków crosses this part of the county for a distance of 24 km. as the crow flies, and joins with the road from Rogoźno to Czarnków near Przybychowo. In Ruda Rogozińska the road from Oborniki to Chodzież crosses the road from Rogoźno to Czarnków. The railway from Poznań to Piła, with a station in Rogoźno, cuts through this stretch and separates it from the fourth part of the county, which nature has more generously endowed with forests and waters full of fish.


The forests here, which have been somewhat thinned out, stretch from the south to the northwest. On the Warta, by Starczanowo, an ancient forest still stands, and a substantial stretch of forest winds along the eastern border of the county, from Gać to near Rogoźno. There are a series of lakes there, Rogoźno, Budziszewo, Maciejak, and Włókno, fortified by the Wełnianka, which flows out of Wągrowiec county, and various outflows of lakes from that same county. These lakes stretch along the border for a distance of 20 km. from Gać to to near Rogoźno. A second line of lakes and ponds, without any clear outflow, winds for a distance of over 12 km. from Huta Pusta to near Łoskoń. A third line, stretching for a distance of about 15 km., creates the Goślinka, a tributary of the Warta, which collects the waters of various streams, and a tributary of lake Bolechowskie from Poznań county, from Czarne Holendry to its mouth. In addition there are still other lakes, such as those near Boguniewo, Nienawiść, Łoskoń, Brzeźno, Wojnowo, Pławno and Nieszawa. The stream Nieszawa is a tributary of the Wełna and flows for 10 km. A stream from near Dobromil and one from near Szymankowo flow into the Warta. The Warta forms the border between Oborniki and Poznań counties for a length of about 4 km., from Holendry Złotograbskie to near Radim; from Radzim, where it creates an island about 1 km. in length, it flows across the county to Holendry Słoniawskie, where it enters Szamotuły county. Its tributaries are named above.


The climate of the various parts of the county change in relation to the conditions of their location in gradations that have not been researched yet. The road from Rogoźno to Poznań via Studzienice, Łoskoń, Długa Goślina, Brody, Trojanowo, Przebędowo and Murowana Goślina is about 24 km long and divides this part of the county intwo two roughly even halves. The road from Rogoźno to Wągrowiec leaves the county 2 km. The road from Trojanowo to Skoki runs about 13.4 km. within the county, also a road from Przebędowo to Oborniki runs 17.8 km. Mines produce iron; amber, mined at one time near Rogoźno; salt deposits and springs near Słoniawy, Oborniki, Bogdanowo and Objezierze; coal is dug from the earth in Bąblin, and peat in Ludomy. As of 1837 there were in this county 124,503 head of livestock, namely, 2,273 horses, 15,927 cattle, 95,513 sheep, 89 goats and 7,701 pigs. Besides the Polish breeds, there are Dutch, Swedish, Oldenburg, Breitenbar, Frisian, Shorthorn and Wilstermarsh cattle; Southdown, Cotswold, Rambouillet and Negretti sheep; and Yorkshire pigs. In Nieszawa there is a farms for foals, and there is a stable in Połajewo. Beekeeping is being abandoned more and more. In the forests there are oaks, pines, beeches, alders, and birches.


Agriculture is the main occupation of the populace. Landed estates consist of knights’ estates and peasant properties ranging in size from fairly large to fairly small. The village owned by a knight usually forms a single unit with its farms and manorial farmstead, but administratively is divided into an estate district and gmina district. Holendry [settlements typically populated by German or Dutch colonists] located some distance from knight-owned villages form separate gminas. Manors with peasants, and isolated manorial farmsteads, as well as individual settlements, are attached to one of those districts. In 1883 peasant-owned properties included 1,763 farms with fewer than 8 hectares, 1,274 with between 8 and 80 hectares, and 52 with between 80 and 160 hectares. Independent manorial farmsteads are often created from the latter, on an equal footing with knights’ estates.


The knights’ estates of Oborniki county are coming under German ownership. The government seized the estates of the churches and starostas. In this county the following Polish lords have maintained their ownership so far: Błociszewski, Cielski, Dobrzycki, Grabowski, Lossow, Polewska, Prądzyński, Raczyński, Siewicz, Skrzydlewski, Tomaszkiewicz, Turno, Wierzbiński, Wolski, Zabłocki and Żółtowski. Until quite recently the Bnińskis, Koszuckis, Kuczborskis, Łakomickis, Mielęckis, Rostworowskis, Skarbkas, Świnarskis and others were also among their number. In the 1880s, of the larger properties, some 32%, or 22,300 hectares, were in Polish hands. We can divide the lands of this county as follows: 57.7% of farmland with income of 10.5 marks, 0.3% of gardens and orchards with income of 20.7 marks, 8.1% of meadows with income of 17.7 marks, 5.2 % of pastureland with an income of 6.0 marks, and 24.5% of forests with an income of 2.7 marks. So net income from land averages 8.7 marks per hectare. Of the total land, large estates occupy 71,995.39 hectares; smaller peasant-owned properties, roads and so forth occupy 37,490.61 hectares. The large estates consist of 34,884.97 hectares of farmland, including orchards and gardens; 5,319.79 of meadows; 2,541.86 of pastureland; 26,862.60 of forests; 1,514.14 of unused land; and 872.03 of water.


Trade and industry are concentrated mostly in the cities. A few years ago there were in this county 29 mills, 23 brickyards, 19 distilleries, 3 breweries, 3 paper mills, 1 sawmill, a starch factory in Orłowo, and scattered windmills, as well as the following mills: on the Wełna, Nowy Młyn Rudzki, Jaracz, Rożnowo and Słoniawy; on the Wełnianka, Borowiec and Owcze Główy; on the Golnica, Smolarz; on the Goślinka, Piłka; on the Samica, Ruksz; Tuczno at Długa Goślina, Kowalewko, Trojanowo, Mściszewo, and others; there were paper mills at Murowana Goślina and Stobnica.

The county’s population was 30,170 in 1819; 38,155 in1837; 48,093 in 1871; 47,269 in 1875; and 50,182 in 1883. Of the latter, 30,828 were Catholics, 17,016 Protestants, and 2,323 Jews; there were 45 inhabitants per square kilometer. The Catholics are Poles, and the Protestants and Jews are German. The county is divided into 4 urban gminas, 117 rural ones, 68 estate districts, 14 civil registry districts, 5 police districts, 2 deaneries, 16 Catholic parishes, 4 Protestant congregations, and 3 synagogues; the total number of settlements is 316. There is a privately-owned mental hospital in Kowanowko.


The history of Oborniki county stretches back into the distant past. If we accept that lake dwellings are the most ancient traces of settlement, then we can say that it began here along the left bank of the Warta, close to Objezierze. During the lowering of the lake a waterside settlement was discovered, as well as a semicircular embankment with traces of burnt offerings, nearby pagan burial grounds and excavated objects, such as urns, lachrymatories and similar earthen vessels, as well as flint tools and other such items. They speak meaningfully of prehistoric population of this vicinity. Objects of this sort were also uncovered in neighboring Ocieszyn, and near Gołębowo, Maniewo, Radzim, Lulin, Popówko, Chrustowo and Uścikowo. On the right bank of the Warta similar objects were dug up in Rudki, Kiszewo, Nowa Myśl, and in swampy meadows amid the woods at: Boruszyn, near Długi Bór; near Połajewo, in the Połajewo hills and on Lisia Góra; in Ryczywół, Gorzewo, Rogoźno, Dąbrowa Ludomska, Boguniewo, Słomowo, Budziszewo, Potrzanowo, Rożnowo, Łukowo, Kąty, Przebędowo, Mściszewo, Murowana Goślina, and Szymankowo. Perhaps in time further archaeological research will tell us the order in which the settlement of these areas took place.


In this county we find individual graves and mass burial grounds. The individual graves are usually box-like, surrounded by stones. Burial grounds have been excavated near Objezierze, Maniowo, and Kiszewo; box-like graves were found at Lisia Góra near Połajewo, and in Owieczki, Mściszewo, Przebędowo, Boruszyn and Ocieszyn. A burial ground was discovered in Popówko was discovered that contains graves with rays of stones emanating from a single center; but no urns have been found there yet. Hive-shaped graves were excavated near Przebędowo, as well as ordinary graves at Łukowo, Szymankowo, and on the hills of Połajewo, and an isolated grave was found in Połajewo. Usually found in these gravesites are earthen urns with fragments of burned bones and various other small objects, which have sometimes been preserved in their original forms, such as buckles, necklaces, rings, and so forth, as well as various kinds of earthenware that have been fired to a greater or lesser extent. Single urns have been found near Boruszyn, Ryczywół, Golębowo, Lulin, and in Chrustowo, where one of the urns contained a piece of melted gold. A whole layer of uns was extracted in Kąty from near Długa Goślina; urns surrounded with stones were found in Potrzanowo; and urns with lids were found in Przebędowo, Mściszewo, and on Lisia Góra near Połajewo. Urns found near Oborniki depicted a human face. Of the vessels found alongside these urns, particularly noteworthy are the black pots from near Lulin and Przebędowo. Various stone objects were excavated in Nowa Myśl; also found were: a hammer near Oborniki; a hatchet and flint battle axe in Lulin; flint wedges, a knife and a black battle axe near Objezierze; tools made of bone in Gołębowo; an iron buckle coated with silver in Uścikowo; bronze objects in Boruszyn; a bronze ring in an urn and an arrow for pinning back hair near Przebędowo; a similar necklace in Lulin; a sword near Rudki; and a buckle in Budziszewo and Boruszyn. As mentioned above, a piece of melted gold was found in one of the urns discovered near Chrustowo. We encounter so-called “Swedish” embankments and trenches opposite Oborniki near Boguniewo, Słomowo and Dąbrówka Ludomska. High citadels, embankments, and deep ditches are found on the island formed by the Warta near Radzim.


Oborniki county has shared the fate of the province of Poznań; the area it occupies today was part of that province. We first find mention of it in writing in 1158, when the citizen Zbilut founded a monastery in Łekno for German monks, and komes [count] Przedwój bestowed upon the monastery his hereditary property, the village of Łoskoń. Circa 1170 prince Mieczysław and Radwan, the bishop of Poznań, brought to Poznań a different set of German monks called the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and granted them large estates, among which a document from 1218 mentions Objezierze and Wargowo. In 1230 the monks are said to have founded the church in Radzim. Before the year 1235 the church in Gniezno owned the village Włókna, which prince Władysław took away, but which Odonicz returned to it. By 1256 a gród and castellany already stood in Radzim; the next year Bolesław, the son of Odonicz, gave to Janek, the son of Wojciech, sizable estates, among which Kowanowo is included. In 1278 the komes Dzierzykraj has his seat at Sycyn; in 1280, Przemysław II granted to Rogoźno a town charter based on German law, with Ruda, Cieśle and Międzylesia as properties. A document from 1284 names Krężoły among the properties owned by Tomisław of Szamotuły; that same year Przemyślaw II gave Lulin and Nieczajno to Żegota, the voivode of Kraków. In 1296 the Brandenburg margraves attacked and killed Przemysław in Rogoźno; that same year prince Władysław gave Olszyna and Gościejewo to Mikołaj, the voivode of Pomerania. In 1308 the Poznań chapter exchanged Popowo for Gradowice, the inheritance of Dobrogost of Szamotuły. Circa 1326 an ironworks existed at Rogoźno; in 1336 Jan, bishop of Poznań, established a parish in Gać, incorporating into it Wojnowo, Łopuchowo, Brzeźno, and Łoskoń [according to Nazwy miejscowe Polski, Vol. III, ed. Kazimierz Rymut, Kraków 1999, ISBN 83-87795-45-3, Gać is now a part of the village of Łopuchowo]. In 1348 a church stood in Dąbrówka Kościelna. In 1356 Maciej, the sołtys of Oborniki, granted to Holy Spirit church in Oborniki, which he founded, various incomes from his estates at Słomowo, Bogdanowo, Uścikowo, Nowa Wieś, Kowanowo, and Kowanówko.


In 1372 the Ostens, lords of Drzeń near Rogoźno, had a farmstead near Rogoźno, where on 25 July they confirmed the sołtys’s property in Tłukawy. In 1383 a civil war was raging in Great Poland; sorties were conducted from Oborniki, which had been taken by the supporters of Domarat, the castellan of Poznań, and these raids devastated the area. That year a truce was called near Starczanowo on the 8th of March; during the negotiations, troops of supporters stood at Sarczanowo and at Radzim, opposite it. In 1384 Sędziwój Świdwa assaulted guests gathered in Przecław and killed Janusz, the wójt of Oborniki. The church in Parkowo was standing by 1448. By 1458 the town of Ryczywół was in existence. Between the years 1526–1530 a starostwo was created in Rogoźno, but the starostwo in Oborniki had existed earlier. We can associate the winches and bullet holes in the walls of the church in Rogoźno more or less with these times.


Before 1580 the following existed: Ciążyn, Przybychówko, Przybychowo, Skrzetusy, Tarnowo, Młynkowo, Krosin, Krosinko, Połajewo, Sierakówko, Górzewo, Tarnówko, Boruszyn, Owieczki, (Piącibudy, which has since vanished), Ludomy, Drzonek, Boruchowo, (Huta near Rogoźno, which has since vanished), Dąbrówka Ludomska, Grudna, Żołędzin, Garbatka, (Jordanowice, which has since vanished, maybe Wiardunki?), Owcze Głowy, Stobnica, Kiszewko, Kiszewo, Boguniewo, Nienawiść, (Zalesie, which has vanished), Gorzuchowo, Bodziszewo, Bąblin, Dąbrówka Leśna, Szczytno, Potrzanowo, Brączewo, Jaryszewo, Pacholowo, Nieszawa, (Nowy and Wójtowski młyn, which may have changed their names), Osowo, (Stara Wieś, which has since vanished), Łukowo, Żerniki, Uchorowo, Długa Goślina, Popówko, Gołaszyn, Szymankowo, Białęzyn, Żukowo, Gołębowo, Brody, Ślepuchowo, Mściszewo, Górka, Kowalewko, Goślinka, Przebędowo, (Wiesiołowo, which has since vanished), Baborowo, Lulinko, Zielątkowo, Tworkowo and Rakownia.


Before 1773 the following existed: Świerkówki, Sepno, Pławno, and Boduszewo; undoubtedly there were others, but we have no precise information about them. Settlements with German names developed in recent times; some properties were given German names, or the spelling of their Polish names was Germanized. Besides the towns of Oborniki, Ryczywół, Murowana Goślina, and Rogoźno, there were two others within the borders of Oborniki county, Stobnica and Parkowo, that are villages today. The Reformation did not have many followers in this county; of the parish churches, those in Ocieszyn, Parkowo, and Murowana Goślina were in the hands of the dissenters for a while. In 1635 a Protestant church was built in Bukówiec; in other places there were only houses of paryer, on which we have insufficient details. In the years 1655 and 1656 the Swedish army passed through the county. Before 1793 the whole county was part of the county and province of Poznań. The county of Oborniki established during the time of Southern Prussia occupied a certain part of Szamotuły county; it came into existence in its current borders in 1815. Before 1793 there were no owners of significant estates of German ethnicity. [E{dmund} Cal{lier}]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego, Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pp. 336-341]


This translation, by Izabela M. Szuman, edited by William F. Hoffman,and submitted by Mike Konczak, is used by permission.

Obrona Leśna

A Folwark (Large Manorial Farmstead) near Sobiejuchy , a village in the Szubin powiat, about 7 ½ km distant from Znin. It contained 3 homes and 43 inhabitants; an area of approximately 255 hectares, generated annual revenues of 3818 German marks. It belongs to the family of Jaroslaw Jaraczewski, the heir to Sobiejuchy. Post Office at Retkowo and a Railroad station at Nakle about 30 km away.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p.349]


This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.


Ocieka, with Wola Ocieska and Zadzikierz, a village on the stream Ocieka or Ociecki, in Ropczyce powiat, lies in a sandy lowland (206 meters). To the north it is surrounded by a large pine forest, the northern part of which is called Spalony las "burned forest"], the southern Sokolny las ["falcon forest"]; to the east is the forest of the village of Kamionka, and to the south part of the forests of the village of Ostrów, Duzy [large] las, Saszczynski and Sarni [deer's] las. In the middle of the village, near the church, runs the Kolbuszowa-Ropczyce highway, from which a branch runs west, and in Dabie (8 km. away) on the Wislok [sic] it joins the highway from Rzochów to Debica. The outlying settlement of Zadzikierz lies to the northeast (3 km.), near the forest on the northeast flank of a hill (245 meters) [on modern maps this appears to be the place now called Sadykierz]. Wola Ocieska [today called Wola Ociecka], which has a beautiful manor, is northwest of Ocieka, on the road to Dabie, on the northwest flank of the wooded Lysa górka (211 meters). Between Ocieka and Zadzikierz there are four small ponds, and on the stream a mill and a windmill.

With these outlying settlements the village has 1,465 Roman Catholic inhabitants, of whom 127 live on the grounds of the major estate, owned by Count Wladyslaw Romer. The major estate has 756 mórgs of farmland, 52 of meadows and gardens, 89 of pastures, and 1,678 of forests; the minor estate has 1,948 mórgs of farmland, 388 of meadows, 479 of pastures, and 343 of forests. The pastures are mostly sandy waste-land. The parish church is old and made of wood, of unknown endowment, and it has sacrament registers only from 1785. The parish includes Blizna, with 233 inhabitants; there are 37 Jews in the parish. There is a people's school here, and a fund for the poor, which has 500 zl. in Austrian currency. Siarczynski (in a manuscript in the Ossolineum library, n. 1826), says that this village belonged to Rzemien and that Anna née Ocieska Mielecka named it, but adds that it is probably the ancestral seat of the Ocieskis, who also owned Rzemien. The villages nearest Ocieka are, to the east, Zdzary and Kamionka, to the south Ostrów, to the west Krownice and Dabie, to the north Blizna. - Mac. 


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pg. 370]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Village also called Oczwioka, in Mogilno County, 4Km south of Gasawa, with 27 houses and 263 inhabitants: 246 Catholics, 10 Protestants and 7 Jews. The parish church and post office are in Gasawa. The railroad station is in Mogilno 17Km away. In 1833, there were 15 houses and 126 inhabitants, all Roman Catholic. The Oćwieka administration and hamlet consisted of 116 hectares of land in 1877. Th v. Wilkens was proprietor of Marcinkowo Dolne and Stanislaw Jasinski owned two farms of 91 hectares. In 1145, Oćwieka was granted to the Trzemeszno Abbey and belonged to that convent until our times. The chronicle Dyplomat Wielkopolski includes these names of the heads of the village: Jan in 1357 and Mieczyslaw in 1373.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 372]


This translation, by Alice Nelsen, is used by permission.


1). Nowa [new], village, and Stara [old], village, Warszawa powiat, Góra gmina, Chotomów parish. It lies on the Nadwislanski railway line, 6 wiorsts beyond Jablonna toward Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki. It has a public elementary school. O. Nowa has 158 inhabitants, 440 morgas; O. Stara 390 inhabitants, 1,110 morgas of peasant land. In 1827 there were 44 households, 270 inhabitants there.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 508]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1995-96 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".

Olwita [now Alvitas, Lithuania]

Olwita [Alvitas], village and manorial farmstead on the lake of the same name, Wylkowyszki [Vilkaviskis] county, Olwita parish and gmina [rural district, township]. It lies on the road from Wylkowyszki to Wierzbolowo [Virbalis], 8 versts from Wylkowyszki [1 verst = about 1.07 km or .66 miles]. It has a parish church built of stone, an elementary school, 33 houses, 452 inhabitants. In 1827 there were 30 houses and 283 inhabitants.

Olwita belonged at one time to the royal estates. The parish church was erected there in 1617 by King Zygmunt III; the present church, of stone, dates from 1824. It possesses an image of the Blessed Mother famed for its miracles and drawing people from distant areas during church fairs. By the church there are two chapels, one with the graves of its endowers, the Chrapowickis, who established it in 1683.

Olwita parish, in Wylkowszki deanery, has 8,091 souls. The Olwita estate
consisted in 1868 of these manorial farmsteads: Olwita, Adamow, Czyczki; and of the following villages: Olwita, Kirsze, Czyczkie Olwickie, and Adamowszczyzna. The manorial grounds total 1,321 morgs [1 morg = about .56 hectares], 959 of farmland and gardens, 224 of meadows, 1 of undergrowth, 145 unused. The village of Olwita has 34 settlements [individual properties], with 222 morgs of land; the village of Kirsze has 13 settlements, with 287 morgs; the village of Czyczki Olwickie has 29 settlements, with 801 morgs; the village of Adamowszczyzna has 2 settlements, with 2 morgs.

The gmina [rural district, township] of Olwita has 5,244 inhabitants, 20,355 morgs of land, with a District II Court in Wierzbolowo 6.5 versts away, [served by the] post office in Wylkowyszki. The following localities are in the gmina: Adamowszczyzna, Boblowka, Bocianow village and manorial farmstead, Budziszki, Czyczki [Cickai] village and manorial farmstead, Czyczki-Niemczewskiej, Czyczki-Olwickie, Czyczki-Wienpupskie, Czyzuny, Emilin, Guzele village and manorial farmstead, Jonajcie, Jozefowo, Kaukokalnie [Kaukakalnis] village and manorial farmstead, Kirsze [Kirsiai], Kisieniszki, Kisieniszki prywatne [privately-owned], Kisieniszki rzadowe [government-owned], Klampucie [Klampuciai] village and manorial farmstead, Kregdzie village and manorial farmstead, Kumiecie, Lankieliszki village and manorial farmstead, Miswiecie [Misvieciai], Obelupie [Obelupiai], Obryw,
Obszrutcie, Olwita, Ossyja, Owsianiszki, Patwiecie, Pienkiny, Podlasiszki,
Pojeziory, Potomkiszki, Turwiniszki, Semeneliszki, Skordupiany, Tadzin
village and manorial farmstead, Unia, Waleryanow, Wanasznie, Wenclawice, Wielkiejeziory, Wiersnupie village and manorial farmstead, and Wiszczokajnie. [Bronislaw Chlebowski].


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pp. 519-520]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


also known as Osigiry, a village in Oszmiana province, the property of Ossigiry. [Ed.: this is a partial translation of the entry]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 635]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Osławica, mountain village on the Hungarian border, district Sanok, over the upper part of Osławica river, tributary of  Oslawa, by the railroad Przemysl-Lupkow between station Komanca and Lupkow. Elevation 557m. It is  squeezed between peaks of Radoszyce 738m, Baranie 744m and Obszar 708m of Beskidy Mountains from the west; from the east by the watershed of Osławica and Oslawa, with the peaks of Jasieniowa and Dolhi Werch 607m. Conifers cover these mountains. The soil is rocky, good for oat. Osławica has a wooden Orthodox Church, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Parish in Radoszyce and according to a census from 1880 694 inhabitants. Annual report of Przemysl Diocese lists 611 Greek Orthodox and 20 Jews. There is a public school here with one classroom. Minor Estate has 1315 ploughlands, 220 meadows, 312 pastures and 541 morgs (302.96 ha) of forest.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pg. 643]


This translation, by Wojciech Gutowski, is used by permission.


Osłonin, village, district Babimos over  Przemeckie Lake, 12 km south-east from Keblowa, parish and post office in Kaszczorze (Altkloster), railroad station in Stare Bojanowo 26 km away, 29 houses and 213 inhabitants (2 Protestants). In 1210 Prince of Kalisz, Wladyslaw grants Osłonin and other properties to Wimar, abbey of Porton to found Monastery in the land of Przemysl. Osłonin was taken by Paradyski Monastery in 1278. There is Ocmik, Osłonin village administrator mentioned in the document from 1379.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pg. 643]


This translation, by Wojciech Gutowski, is used by permission.


Osłonki, village and farmstead, district Nieszawa, commune of Osieciny, with the parish church, 28 km from Nieszwa, with 120 inhabitants. There were 10 houses and 85 inhabitants there in 1827. Osłonki and Pniewy belonged to Wloclawek Chapter. At this time the farmstead and the village Osłonki with the nomenclature Pniewy, farmstead property 546 mórgs (305.76 ha), farmland 523 mórgs (292.88 ha), meadows 12 mórgs (6.72 ha), pastures 5 mórgs (2.8 ha), wasteland 6 mórgs (3.36 ha), masonry buildings 5, wooden buildings 6. Village of Osłonki, 13 individuals with 15 mórgs (8.4 ha) of land.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pg. 643]


This translation, by Wojciech Gutowski, is used by permission.

Osłowa Dąbrowa

Osłowa Dąbrowa, German Oslawdamerow, German documents from 1437 Woyszlaff Damerow, village, district Bytow, post office Poloczno, Roman Catholic parish, Ugoszcz. It belonged to Bytow group of villages. As per rent-roll documents from 1437 they paid 3 buckets of honey (III pockoff; ob. Cramer: Gesch. D. L. Lauenb und Buetow, II, page 303). From Rybinski’s visit from 1780 we know that one half of the village belonged to the king and the other half belonged to the noblemen. The owners were: Jan Sarnowski, Ad. Baron Palubicki, Mateusz Klopotk, Pawel Klopotk and Pawel Cyrzan. There were 53 inhabitants, Catholics in the king’s part; 65 inhabitants, Catholics in noblemen’s part.


Osłowo, German Oslowo, documented as Osslaw, Oslaw, village, Swieck district, post office, telephone and train station Laskowice, roman catholic parish Jezewo, protestant parish Swiecie, protestant school in the village. The area of the village is 830.30 morgs (464.98 ha). There were 47 structures, 24 houses, 2 Catholics, 170 protestants. Oslowo is located by the Bydgoszcz-Tczew railroad. Sandy soil. During Teutonic times the village performed mounted services (see Wegner: Ein Pom. Herzogthum, II, page 52). As per tariff book from 1717 Oslowo paid 25 groszy 9 dennars (see Cod. Belnesis in Pelplin, page 86). As a Church collection village gave 4 korces (bushels) of oats and the same of rye in 1711 (see Wizyt, by Szaniawski, page 263).


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pg. 643]


This translation, by Wojciech Gutowski, is used by permission.


1) .... 2) A village in the district of Złotow, having its postal station in Lipka and the Catholic parish in Zakrzewo, ¾ mile distance. The Prussian Protestant Freeland Church and school are located here. It has 4827.18 morgs of open land. In 1868, it had 149 buildings, 72 homes, 543 inhabitants of which 417 were Lutheran and 116 were Catholic. This village was destroyed by the River Osowka in 1617. At that time it had 9 farmers. 3).... 4) .... 5) .... 6) .... Ks{iadz} Fr.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pp. 654-655]


This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.

Osowy Grunt

Osowy Grunt, properly OSOWY GRĄD, village in the district of Augustów, community of Kolnica, parish of Augustów, distance from Augustów 9 versts, it has 32 houses and 287 residents. In 1827 there were here 21 houses and 123 residents.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 655]


This translation, by Anthony Paddock, is used by permission.


1.) Village, powiat [district] of Gostyń, gmina [township] of Szczawin Kościelny, parish in Gostynin. It has 20 houses, 172 inhabitants, area of 395 morgs. One elementary Lutheran school. According to the draft register from 1580 to 1581, the village, in the old Gostyń parish had 5.75 łan, with 2.25 łan belonging to the village head; 1 zagrodnik [a farmer with a house and a small plot, often a garden, surrounding the house, but no arable fields], 1 tradesman, 1 tenant (komornik) and a windmill (as per Pawiński, Wielkopolska, vol I, p. 66).


2.) Ossowo. Manor farmstead and a village on the Chodeczka river, powiat [district] of Włocławek, gmina [township] of Piaski, parish in Lubraniec. 21 wiorst from Włocławek. Watermill. Population 81. In 1885 manor farmstead had 475 morgs of area, incl: 455 morgs of fields and orchards, 8 morgs of pastures, 4 morgs of bush. In the rented mill settlement there was 40 morgs, 8 morgs of waste land; 6 brick houses and 1 wood house. Village Ossowo, population 11, 7 morgs of fields. Br. Ch.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 659]


This translation, by Eva M. Zuber, is used by permission.


A district town in the Łomża guberniya, on the River Narwa. Latitude 53º 5’ north, longitude 39º 19’ west. It is situated in a sandy and woody area, part of the Ostrołęka forest, on the left bank of the Narwa. The excellent road from Warszawa to Kowno transverses the town. A lesser one connects Ostrołęka to Ostrow, 39 wiorst away and Malkinia, 54 wiorst away, where there is a train station on the Warsaw – Petersburg route. Warsaw is 109 wiorst away and Łomża 33. The parish and monastery church are both brick-built. There is a synagogue, St. Joseph’s hospital with 40 beds, 2 primary schools with one classroom, court for area 1 and a parish court for area 2, both of which belong to the judges assembly in Pultusk, district administration office, town council, post and telegraph office, amber factory, 2 distilleries, 2 honey and 2 vinegar plants. There are 439 houses and 5,865 people. In 1860, there were 192 houses and 3,460 people of whom 1,130 were Jewish. Ostrołęka is undoubtedly one of the oldest settlements in the Ostrołęka Forest area. In 1379, Ziemowit 111, a Mazowsze prince, divided his land among his sons giving Jan not only Czerska and Warsaw but also Ostrołęka with its forestlands. Prince Janusz establishes a parish and builds a church in 1399. Janusz Stary granted it city rights in 1427 and these included the right to establish baths, clipping station and to run two fairs. In 1502, Konrad, a Mazowsze prince granted the artisan guilds privileges. After the Mazowsze was incorporated into the crown, Ostrołęka and its surrounding forestland became a non-stronghold starostwo, rendering homage to Queen Bona. The starosts who had their manors here could fell timber to their hearts’ content. In 1552, Bona affirmed the guild privileges. In 1563, a fire destroyed the town, which already had 334 houses. In 1578, Stefan Batory bestowed privileges on Ostrołęka. In 1616, 230 houses existed. In 1666, Tomasz Goclawski, judge of the Nurska lands, established and built the Bernadine church and monastery. In 1702, battles took place near Ostrołęka between the Swedes and Kurps (inhabitants of the area N-E of Warsaw. The latter wanted to prevent the former from crossing through the forestlands. 26 May 1831 marks the day of a significant battle for the whole campaign. The Poles, led by Gen. Skrzynecki, fought the Russians. A monument in memory of the fallen Russians was erected on the right bank of the river, across from the town. Apart from churches, Ostrołęka has no historical monuments. The parish church was reconstructed in 1646, burnt in 1831 and renovated in 1873. Its original character has been almost completely lost, apart from some traces of the ogival construction in the presbytery and sacristy. The interior of the post Bernadine church, with its murals, reminds one of St. Anne Church in Warsaw. 50 villages, farms and settlements belonging to the towns have grown up on the expansive surrounding areas. They are under the jurisdiction of the peace court. The more important ones are: Antonie, Bialobiel, Gusty, Zabrodzie, Lazy, Otok, Podrezewo etc. and 26 smaller settlements, together known as Leg (Leg Wielki Las, Leg Rozoga etc.) They are situated on the opposite bank of the river, on land formerly part of the forest and given to the town as a salary. Ostrołęka and its history are covered by Winc. Gawarecki in the Płocki Diary of 1830 and in the Weekly Illustrated of 1875, volume XV, 56. Ostrołęka parish and deanery (formerly Mlawa) has 7,587 parishioners. In the 1660 survey, the Ostrołęka non-stronghold starostwo in the Mazowsze province, Łomża lands, was made up of the town Ostrołęka and the following villages; Pomian, Dylow, Budne, Sekwa, Wykroff, Wojkowe, Laki, Dabrowo, Myszeniec, Surowe, Chudek, Siedliska, Okrasino, and the small town of Radzilow. In 1771 it belonged to Antoni Malachowski, the crown writer, who paid 11,109 zloty 3 grosz in army tax and 2, 46 zl 23 gr. in army winter tax. In the 1773-75 Parliament, the republic bestowed lands with emphyteusis rights on the same Malachowski. Ostrołęka district in the Łomża guberniya was established in 1867, partly from lands of the same name. The narrow strip extends from the southeast towards the northwest. To the north it borders with Prussia, to the east with the Kolno and Łomża districts, to the south with the Ostrow district and to the west with the Makow and Przasnysz districts. It covers an area of 29.43 sq. miles. The River Narew cuts it in an east to northwest line and divides it into two almost equal parts, which differ much from one another. The northern part is wooded and swampy and is made up of 3 rivers basins, which carry the waters of the lake-filled Baltic plateau to the Narew. They are: the Omulew, Rozoga and Szkwa. They flow lazily, almost parallel to one another, spreading out into wide, marshy valleys. The narrow, rather barren watersheds are covered with trees. The soil here is sandy and infertile. 2 viorst from Ostrołęka, on the right bank of the Narew and east of the villages Drazewo, Nakly and Grabowo, there is a 2 sq. km. sandy, undulating area which is dissected by marshes and covered sparsely with pine and birch woods. The constantly moving sands have smothered the nearby villages. The Kurps live on this poor land and own only small holdings. The barren lands compel the people to seek other occupations like hunting, fishing and smuggling. In the north, there is a part of the former Myszyniec primeval forest. The southern part of the district, with its Mazury population, is much better off. The only river, the Orz, a tributary of the Narew, cuts through the area, flowing through a narrow, mostly deep-sided valley. The level rises to the east and south, attaining 400 ft whereas the northern half of the river valley measures 280ft and the watersheds up to 350 ft. The southern part, on the left bank of the Orzyca, the level reaches 407 ft. The fertile soils produce wheat and even rye. (around Goworowo and Czerwina). Arable farming is the main occupation and larger farms are more common. There are around 15 larger properties in spite of parcellation. Apart from disused peat fields and abandoned marsh ore mines, one can find amber mines, especially in the northern half. It is to be found between the layers of decomposed leaves, mostly beneath the peat. The largest amounts are found in so called “kettles,” where a number of veins converge, and can weigh up to a several dozen pounds. Single amber stones can weigh up to a pound. The excavation of amber has dropped in recent times because of a lack of interest in the manufactured products and because of the ban on searching for it in government forests, which make up the majority of the area. The Kurp lands have been totally exploited. Factories are almost unknown. Apart from a few small plants such as watermills, windmills and brick-yards there are only 3 larger ones: a sugar mill in Gucin (amid the wheatland near Goworowo), American mill processing up to 20,000 bushels of grain, in Olszewo and an amber plant in Ostrołęka. The population of 51,439 in 1867 rose to 63, 938, which included 6,000 Jews. As to communication means, the Ostrołęka district has a waterway, the Narew river, the first class road Warsaw- Kowno and two second class roads from Ostrołęka to Malkinia (station on the Warsaw-Petersburg railway) and Ostrołęka to Myszyniec. The sorry state of education is mirrored in the lack of public schools. Apart from the 2 schools in Ostrołęka, the entire district has only 9 in: Czerwin, Goworowo, Kadzidlo, Myszyniec, Nasiadka, Piski, Suchcice, Troszyn and Zawady. As far as the church is concerned, the Ostrołęka district deanery is part of the Płock diocese comprising 9 parishes: Czerwin, Goworowo, Kadzidlo, Kleczkowo, Myszyniec, Ostrołęka, Piski, Rzekun and Troszyn. And regarding the courts, it is made up of 1 peace court district, the neighbouring colonies and 3 commune courts: Ostrołęka, Kadzidlo and Czerwin. From the administration point, it is made up of 1 town and 11 communes: Czerwin (5641 pop.), Dylewo (5365), Goworowo (4851), Myszyniec (8368), Nasiadki (5349), Piski (2383), Rzekun (4941), Szczawin (3513), Troszyn (5446) and Wach (7811).There are 208 villages in these communes. Br[onislaw] Ch[lebowski]


Ostrołęka [Galician Poland]


1. village and farm on the river Pilica, in the Grojec district, Komary commune and Ostrołęka parish. It lies 21 wiorst from Grojec. Situated on a hill, set in sandy flat land, between the rivers Vistula and Pilica (right bank), not far from Mniszewo. It has a parish church and a spring, not as yet examined. In 1827 there were 26 houses and 243 people. It is the ancient seat of the Ciolek family. Stanislaw Ciolek, a Poznan bishop, and his brother, Wigand, the Czersk castellan, established a parish here made up of the villages cut off from Mniszewo and Warki. They erected a brick-built church in 1429. Swiecicki author of “A Description of Mazowsze” was married to Malgorzata Ciolek and received Ostrołęka in the dowry. In his book he describes it as “a village set in beautiful surrounds, suitable as a residence for the Muses.” A drawing of the manor in Ostrołęka appeared in the “Weekly Illustrated” (nr. 101), in 1884. In 1869, Ostrołęka and its lands were made up of Ostrołęka manor and Karolinow alias Grazyna, as well as the village of Ostrołęka. The manorial lands, 1252 morgs in all, were divided up as follows: Ostrołęka manor - 123, meadows – 212, pastures – 6, forest – 102, barren land – 37, brick buildings - 2, wooden buildings – 17. Karolinow alias Grazyna – 721: meadows – 6, pastures – 1, forest – 35 and barren land – 10. There was a 17- field crop rotation, a windmill and a disorganized forest. Ostrołęka village has 1000 people and belongs to the Grojec parish and deanery (formerly Wareck)


2. Ostrołęka, in documents Ostraleka, Ostra Leka, a village and manor in the Lowicz district, Lubiankow commune and Glowno parish. It is 18 wiorst from Lowicz, to the left of the road going from Lowicz to Glowno and has a population of 152. In 1827 there were 21 houses and 151 people. Wincenty Kot from Debno, archbishop of Gniezno, (died 1548), gave the Ostrołęka tithes to the Lowicz collegiate church. At that time, Ostrołęka belonged to the Domaniewo parish and the church in Glowno (Lib. Ben. Lask. II, 249, 344, 346). Today it has 593 morgs: under cultivation – 528, meadows – 50, barren land – 15, brick buildings – 4, wooden buildings – 8 and a 4-field crop rotation. Part of the land is called Dziadowiec and, from time to time, was settled by old and poor farmers.


3. Ostrołęka: in documents Ostrolaka, a village and manor, in the Nowy Radom district, Zamosc commune, Sulmierzyce parish and 21 wiorst from Radomsko. The village has 14 houses and 102 people and the manor 4 houses and 7 people. In 1827, there were 9 houses and 43 people. According to Lib. Ben. Lask. (I, 491) the village gave the Gniezno prebend and canonry its tithes and the vicar in Sulmierzyce a donation of a grosz from its corn-fields. The 1552 and 53 conscription register mentions the aristocratic owners as Stanislaw and Jerzy, Adam Jakub and Katarzyna Marsk (Pawinski; Wielkop., II, 284). Today the manor covers 230 morgs: arable – 176, meadows – 26, pastures – 18, barren land – 10, wooden buildings – 8 and a 9-field crop rotation. Peat fields are present. Ostrołęka village has 11 people and 84 morgs.


4. Ostrołęka: village and manor in the Radom district, Przytyk commune and Wrzos parish. It lies 24 wiorst from Radom and has 16 houses and 186 people. In 1827, there were 9 houses and 125 people. According to the register of 1508, Ostrołęka along with Podkana, Slowikow and Studzieniczna belonged to Pawel Podlodowski who paid 31 groszy from his 2 fields. Stanislaw Podkansky lived here in 1569 and had 4 fields (Pawinski: Malop., II, 312, 474). The tithes from the village, worth up to 7 grzywien, were paid to the vicar in Wrzos, as established by Archibishop Jaroslaw. He also received 1 grosz tithes from every corn-field. (Lib. Ben. Lask., I, 684). In 1871, Ostrołęka lands were made up of Ostrołęka and Wyrob manors, Ostrołęka village and the 907 morgs were divided up as follows: arable land – 463, meadows – 60, pastures – 15, waters – 2, forest – 240, thicket – 60, rented property – 60, barren land – 22, wooden buildings – 14, peat fields and organised forest. Ostrołęka village has 179 morgs.


5. Ostrołęka: village and manor on the Vistula, in Sandomierz district, Samborzec commune, Skotniki parish and 5 wiorst from Sandomierz. It has 22 houses and 137 people. In 1827, there were 23 houses and 133 people. In 1885, Ostrołęka manor had 430 morgs: arable – 196, meadows – 40, pastures – 55, barren – 139, 11 wooden buildings and a 4, 6 and 8 –field crop rotation. The village Ostrołęka has 37 morgs and the village Bogorya 24.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pp.690-693]


This translation, by Jolanta Siestrzewitowska, is used by permission.


Ostrów, by Tuszewie, with Zagroda, Pataraka, Stara Wieś, Buda Tuszowska, Foca and Kątniki, the village is also called Ostrowy Tuszowskie, district of Kolbuszowa.  The village has a Roman Catholic parish church, (Diocese of Tarnów, Deanery of Mielec), and a public school.  The wooden church was built in 1562.  To the parish belong Kumorów, Przyłęk, Toporów and Szydłowiec.  In 1880, there were 1,204 inhabitants (82 on the territory of the larger domain).  However, the church schematic lists 1,120 Roman Catholics and 83 Jews.  Budy Tuszowskie is a German settllement, established on a small area of the village of Tuszów. Ostrów has a community loan association with assets of 2,959 złoty, while the settlement has assets of 547 złoty (Austrian Currency).  The fund for the poor, established by Fathers Anzelm Urbański and Feliks Kamieński, has 275 złoty (Austrian Currency).  The large estate of M. Hirsch, a Jew, has 24 mórgs of farmland, 1 mórg of meadows, 11 mórgs of pastureland, and 1,813 mórgs of pine forests.  The lesser domain has 1,507 mórgs of farmland, 348 mórgs of meadows, 363 mórgs of pastureland, and 365 mórgs of forests.  This village, fragmented into many hamlets, lies near the mouth of the Jamnica Stream which disappears into the Babulski marshes in the sandy, pine-forested Kolbuszowa plain (218 meters).  The hamlets of Pataraki,  Kątniki and the Brazylia Inn are situated to the north of the village, in the midst of the forest, on the right bank of the Jamnica.  Budy Tuszowskie is on the west of the Komorwska Foundry.  On the west Ostrów borders Toporów, on the south Kossów, on the east Jagodniki and on the north Ostrów Baranoski. Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski   Item #3


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, p. 705]


This translation, by Anthony Paddock, is used by permission.

Oszmiana [now Ashmyany, Hrodna, Belarus]

- (the name derives from the Lithuanian "Azymertas"- the edge; erroneously called "Osmiana", and known as "Aschemynne" in the Chronicles of the Teutonic Knights). It is the provincial (powiat) capital town in Wilno gubernia, lying amidst the fertile, hilly environs of the Osmianka river basin, 49 miles from Wilno, on the highway to Minsk. In 1880, there were 5,050 inhabitants (352 Orthodox, 2,175 Catholics, 3 Evangelical Protestants, 2,501 Jews and 18 Moslems). It contains the wooden Orthodox church called "Bogojawlenska" established in 1840, the brick Holy Archangel Michael Catholic church, 4 Jewish prayer-houses, a hospital, 4 tanneries, 3 breweries, and 33 shops. In 1871 there were 4,546 inhabitants; in 1859 only 3,066. Municipal revenues in 1859 totaled 1,214 rubles. In educational composition, there was a 2nd-class provincial school, a Catholic parish school and a Jewish school in Oszmiana.

An ancient settlement existed on this site, probably from around 1040. The town stepped onto center stage in 1384, when the Teutonic Knights attempted an expedition aiming at the destruction of the hereditary state of Jagiello, then Prince of Krewie, by approaching for a first strike at Oszmiana. They then turned towards Wilno, halted and encamped at Miednikam, where sallies against Oszmiana disturbed the garrison there. When preparations in 1432 had been made for the removal of Swidrigall for his intolerable conduct in governing Lithuania, a meeting was held at Oszmiana resulting in his banishment from the kingdom. He and his retinue crossed over the border near Oszmiana to a small Russian/Tartar outpost, when they were unexpectedly attacked. The force was led by Zygmunt Kjestut, Prince of Starodubowsk, destined to rule the Kingdom of Lithuania at Jagiello's pleasure, and by Prince Holzansk, another of the Voivods and Boyars who possessed significant numbers of warriors. Swidrigall's retinue scattered, and with scarcely 14 riders accompanying him was able to carry out an escape. Not deterred, Swidrigall made his return in the autumn of that year at Polotsk, encountering Zygmunt's forces in a pitched battle and losing 10,000 men killed, 4,000 prisoners-of-war, and 8 standard-bearers, was forced to surrender the field of battle. Zygmunt, as thanks to God for the victory, established a college near the parish church there, but was forced to be the financial supporter by either Jagiello or Witold. Indeed, he was bankrupted by it in later times.

In this epochal period, Oszmiana, which had served originally as a princely court, began to be built up as a town. Dating from the time the original settlers had given it its name and known today as "Old Oszmiana", a Franciscan mission was installed about a quarter-league away by Alexander Jagiello in 1505, with a wooden church and monastery. Later a brick church was erected at the same spot in 1822. Other items were also funded there by Witold following his defeat at Vorskla. New Oszmiana had already been a town under Zygmunt the Old, its freedom and fortunes entrusted to his laws. A revision in 1537 at the behest of the Crown defined a law of compulsory markets and citizen obligations, in which each market stall had to pay 7.5 clean small coins [ed.-- some known value] to the Royal Treasury, 5 clean coins for streets, as well as 2.5 coins for gardens and twigs [ed. --collection of firewood?] for the settlement. For each morg [ed.-1.38 acres] of garden space, they paid 3 grozy; for twigs, a single grosz; for rental of 30 farming acres, 40 groszy; and for locating suitable acreage, 3 groszy. For each mead-, beer- and liquor tavern, the town paid a single 30-grosz lump sum to the Crown. Other than these taxes, they would not be subject to any other financial obligations, including nothing for the stage (transportation), defense, or distributing the mail. Jan III confirmed these privileges by law beginning in 1683.


On January 18, 1667, new funding increased for the town. Andrew (Clerk of Oszmiana territory) and Dorothy Poczobutow from Oborski built Holy Trinity Catholic Church and a monastery (out of wood) at their own expense and settled Dominicans there. The Dominican monastery was later abolished in 1850. Nicholas Rudy Radziwill, brother to Queen Barbara and Voivod of Wilno, upon becoming Sheriff of Oszmiana, erected a Calvinist meeting-hall there in the second half of the 16th Century.


Following a suit filed by the mayor, council and aldermen of Oszmiana challenging abolition of local privileges, King Stanislaus Augustus published an acknowledgement of renewed privileges, dated May 22, 1792 from Warsaw, holding Oszmiana accountable for a Great Parliament in a suitable location for court and assemblies, as a free town and independent of any other direct administration except his own royal magistrates. The privileges removed any other jurisdictional control and at the same time the influence of the Sheriff, assuring the town property and insuring against arbitrary taxes. A local citizen had consistency in the verdict of a local court, and was able to appeal decisions to the Appellate Court in Wilno or to the Court Assessor of the Prince of Lithuania. At the same time the town coat-of-arms was conferred, just as freely chosen- on one portion a hand holding a scale, and on the second escutcheon, a Poniatowski calf with the inscription and nothing else: "In memory of (King) Stanislaus Augustus, 1792".


During the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Oszmiana was the capital town of a very large province, according to the Constitution of 1717 counting 84,200 inhabitants. It happened not by court decree of lands and fenced areas, but through the free election of the Sejm itself. The Marshal was the foremost government official of the province. Following the dismemberment of the Commonwealth during the Partitions, Oszmiana was destined as a provincial town under the governorship of Wilno and presented with General Major Konczialow; from 1842, the town was consigned as court property. The town endured a great deal in 1831 [ed.--the year of a Polish-Lithuanian rebellion against the Tsar]. Occupied at first during the rebellion under the rule of Colonel Karl Przezdziecki and Prince Jasinski, the Dominicans, who carried off there 100,000 zlotys, 10,000 loads and many other provisions, were deprived [ed.-relieved? This section is unclear.] of them on April 11th by Colonel Werzulina, the story as known through his memoirs.


The castle domains of the Sheriff of Oszmiana were included in the Wilno Voivoidship, Oszmiana province. In 1771, Oszmiana province was constituted as the town and adjacent areas. It is true that the Sejms of 1590 and 1609 allowed the Sheriffs of Oszmiana to have all the swearings-in of Clerks at the townlet of Miadzole, before which bailiff accounts and sundry wrongdoings had be be presented to the Prince. In 1766, Michael Brzostowski, Treasurer of Lithuania, occupied the position of Sheriff and following him, Tadeusz Kociell, who both paid the army tax of 1157 zlotys.

[ed.- In the listing which follows, the name, untranslated coat-of-arms (h.), and the dates are provided.] The Sheriffs of Oszmiana were (from around 1530 to 1794 in alphabetical order): Cyprian Paul Brzostowski, h. Strzemie (1668-74); Jerome & Michael Brzostowski (1765-72); Gregory Chodkiewicz, h. Kosciesza (1544); Ludwig Jacob Chominski, h. Poraj (1734-36), Wincenty Gąsiewski, h. Slepowron (1651); Michael Kopec, h. Kroje (1727); Tadeusz Kociell, h. Pelikan (elected 1764-88); Bogdan Narbut, h. Trąby & Tadeusz Oginski, his own person (1740-55); Andrew Ignace Oginski son of Tadeusz (1755-62), Hilary Alexander Polubinski, h. Jastrzębiec (1667); Casimir Michael Pac, h.Gozdowa (1685); Nicholas Radziwill, h. Trąby (1557); Paul Stephen Sapieha. h. Lis (1598); Alexander Sapieha (1622); Christian Sapieha (1662); Michael Sapieha (1683); Adam Matthew Sakowicz, h. Korwin from a change, John Anselm Wilczek, h. Poraj (1634); N. Wolodzko (1740); John Zabrezinski, h. Leliwa (1530); George Deszpot Zenowicz, h. his own person (1629); and Christian Deszpot Zenowicz (1701-24).

The Catholic parish within the Oszmiana deaconate has 8,000 parishioners. Chapels are found in Olany, Horodnike, Polany as well as a cemetery. The Orthodox parish deaconate [ed.- also identified as **błahoczynia**] for Oszmiana has 489 parishioners................... (262 men and 197 women).

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pp. 752-753]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.

Oszmiana powiat [now Ashmyany rayon, Hrodna, Belarus]

Oszmiana powiat- Lying within Wilno gubernia, it borders with Lida province on the west, on the northwest with Wilno, on the northeast with Swiecian province, to the east with Wilia province as well as Minsk gubernia, which borders it for equal distances on the southeast and east. The province contains 2,727 square miles (another count has it at 2,696 square miles) of which there are 1,742,800 acres in total; 69,550 acres (4%) in settlements, 490,460 arable acres (28.1%), 153,650 acres of (grazable) moors (8.8%), 194,400 acres pasturage and meadow (11.2%), 727,300 acres of forests (41.7%), and 107,400 acres barrens or water bodies (6.2%). In 1859, 385,290 acres belonged to the government (22.1%), 5,087 acres to towns (.3%), 6,720 acres to Orthodox and Catholic churches (.4%), with the remaining 1,345,500 acres in private hands (77.2%).


In the northern part of the province, the topography is elevated and hilly, occasioned by the [ed.-- morainal] hill chain Awratyn. The highest locations are found near the villages Topiszki (1175 feet above sea level), Lojce (1049'), Donkni (766'), Widnopol estate (729' asl.) and the town of Jewie (610' asl.). The southern part in the Berezina river basin is lowlands, marshes and covered in forest. The central part consists of evenly rolling hills. Soils in the northern part are clayey or sandy; in the south marshy and humic. Bog-iron mines are found in the marshy lowlands, with especially rich deposits in the vicinity of Naliboki and Wisznew where deposits contain up to 50% iron. Oszmiana province, having the highest topography in the entire gubernia near Wilno, is very poorly endowed with lakes with none very large. Some of the most important are: Dub, Dubina, Kroman, and Reczuny, "The Swamp", as well as many small ones in the southern part of the province contributing to the notable Purwilski Marsh, out of which flows the Purvil river in turn contributing to the Olszanka River. The Wilia River flows from this same area to the northwestern border, and is the largest in Oszmiana province. The Nieman River flows along the southwestern border, fed by the Berezina, the Olszanka, the Wolozyn, and Isloch, Usze, and the Sutle tributaries. Towards the western border, the Zyzma flows into the Gawia which itself originates from the Klewa River (the Gawia emptying into the Nieman).


In 1880, there were 162,285 inhabitants in the province [ed.-- unclear if the statistics include the town of Oszmiana which had special privileges], broken down as follows: 5,749 gentry, 287 clergy of all faiths, 69 honorary [ed.- major or titled?] landowners, 22,827 townspeople, 128,011 peasants, 5,084 military men, 220 foreigners, and 38 of uncertain status. By religion, there were 50,440 Orthodox, 891 Roskolnikovs (Old Believers), 99,020 Catholics, 162 Evangelicals (Protestants), 11,131 Jews, and 641 Moslems. In 1859 there were 128,666 inhabitants in the province (60,515 men and 63,547 women), counting 27,394 White Russian Orthodox, 20,650 Catholic Poles, 62,571 Catholic Lithuanians, and 2,527 Lithuanian Orthodox. In 1871, 142,688 inhabitants; in 1875, 152,261; and in 1878, 156,218. According to 1858 tax receipts, there were 15,425 horses [ed.--registered breeding horses?], 38,873 horned cattle, 18,911 common sheep, 8,974 specialty sheep, 7,980 plow or work horses, and 20,636 pigs, which comes to .19 animals per acre. The population is a mixture of Lithuanians and White Russians. The predominant language of the inhabitants is changing from Polish to White Russian, with additionally incorporated Lithuanian expressions.


The most recent province administration consists of four (state) police districts: Zuprany, Smorgon, Dziewieniszki, and Wolozyn. There are 2 peacetime (civil) courts for peasant legal affairs at Oszmiana and Poloczany; 4 districts for performance of military obligations in Oszmiana, Smorgon, Subotniki, and Wolozyn; 3 District Inquiry Courts, with bureau offices in Oszmiana, (G)Holszany, and Smorgon, namely the 4th-tier District Circuit of Lida for 8 gminas, and three district review boards at Smorgon for the rest of the gminas. The province is further composed of 23 gminas: Polany, Soly, Holszany, Grauzyszki, Kucewicze (1st police district); Smorgon, Bienica, Krewo, Poloczany and Horodzki (2nd police district); Dziewieniszki, Subotniki, Lipniszki, Siedliszcze, Iwie, Lugomowicze, Traby, Juratiszki (3rd police district); and Wolozyn, Wiszniew, Naliboki, Derewno, and Bakszty (4th police district). Those gminas are broken down into 142 rural districts (sheriffs domains), 1,353 villages and other residential units, and 12,340 huts or cabins. The following are identified towns within the province: (1st police district) Slobodka, Zuprany, Soly, Holszany, Oszmiana Murowana, Boruny and Grauzyszki; (2nd police district) Zaskiewicze, Bienica, Smorgon, and Krewo; (3rd police district) Subotniki, Lipniszki, Konwaliszki, Gieranony, Hermaniszki, Dziewieniszki, Trobiele, Iwie, Mikolajow, Dudy, Lazduny, Traby, Surwiliszki, and Juratishki; (4th police district) Wolozyn, Wiszniew, Slowiensk, Zabrzez, Derewno, and Naliboki.


The chief occupations of the inhabitants are mainly agriculture and lumbering with transportation down the Berezina. Industrial fabrication is poorly represented. Of the industrial facilities, the one notable exception is the iron foundry of Prince Witgenstein in Naliboki [ed.- Kletistche, destroyed in World War II], manufacturing various forged and cast iron products with an annual revenue of 44,025 rubles. Other factories worth mentioning: a pottery factory at Krewo, and wool products made at Holszany (belts, stockings, and socks).


Regarding churches: Oszmiana province is divided into the two Orthodox deaconates of Oszmiana and Wolozyn, the first of which contains 14 parishes: Oszmiana, Smorgon (two-- the Transfiguration of Christ and St. Michael), Bienica, Krewo (two: Holy Trinity and St. Alexander Nevsky) Zalesie, Losk, Holszany, Traby, Cycyn, Juratiski, Sutkowo, and Michalowszczyzna. There are 14 Orthodox parish churches, 8 affiliates, 9 cemeteries, 4 chapels, and 23,392 parishioners (11,693 men and 11,699 women). The Wolozyn Orthodox deaconate has 12 parishes: Wolozyn (two: St. Joseph and St. Constance), Wiszniew, Zabrzezie, Mikolajow, Slowiensk, Dubina, Horodzilow, Hruzdow, Douwbeny, Bakszty and Horodzki, with 12 parish churches, 3 affiliates, 6 cemeteries, 3 chapels, and a count of 27,400 parishioners (13,515 men and 13,885 women). Within the borders of the province are 52 Orthodox churches and 7 chapels.


Oszmiana province equally has two Catholic deaconates: Oszmiana and Wiszniew. The first contains 6 parishes: Oszmiana with chapels in Olany, Horodniky and Polany (8,040 parishioners), Holszany with an affiliate in Bohdanowie and a chapel in Holszany (8,457 faithful); Soly with an affiliate in Daukszyszke and a chapel in Soly; Slobodka, Raczuny, Proniuny, and Gudogaje (8,591 parishioners); Grauzyszki (3,013 parishioners); Zuprany also with a chapel there (5,030 faithful); and Oszmiana Murowany (4,309 parishioners). All told, there are 37,440 Catholic parishioners in this deaconate. Previously there were also parishes in Smorgon, Krewo and Bienica. The Wiszniew deaconate contains 12 parishes: Wiszniew with a chapel and cemetery (4,877 parishioners); Gieranony with an affiliate in Dziewieniszki and a chapel in Berkowszczyzna (7,421 faithful); Hruzdowo-Oborek with a chapel in Cholchlo, Czernowo and a burial cemetery (3,312 faithful); Derewna (4,842 par.); Iwie with an affiliate in Dudy and a chapel in Jatoltowicze and a burial cemetery (11,460 parishioners); Konwaliszki with a chapel in Stolki (2,525 faithful); Lipniszki with a chapel in Zygmunszczyske (5,900 par.); Naliboki (4,344 faithful); Subotniki with an affiliate in Lazduny and a chapel in Kwiatkowce (9,545 par.); Surwiliszki with a chapel in Klewica (3,041 faithful); Traby with a chapel in Jancewicze and a burial cemetery (3,592 parishioners); and Zabrzezie with a chapel in Rozeslawie (3,891 parishioners). In all there are 65,110 parishioners in the Wiszniew deaconate. Formerly, there were also parish churches in Losku, Wolozyn, and Horodzilowie.


Concerning central communications linkages in the northern part of the province, there is the Lipawa [ed.- today Lith. Klaipeda]-Roniny rail line with stations at Soly, Smorgon, and Zalesie. Postal roads take one from Soly station through Oszmiana and Holszany to Subotniki; from Holszany station to Wolozyn; from the town of Smorgon to Wojstom station (in Swiecian province), as well as from Smorgon to the town of Krewo. Postal stations are at Oszmiana, Smorgon, Subotniki, Soly, Wolozyn, Holszany, Iwie, and Krewo. The Oszmiana provincial coat-of-arms, confirmed in the Ukaze of June 9, 1845, exhibits an escutcheon divided into two fields, on the higher the symbol of Wilno gubernia represented by a Lithuanian blazon on a black field, and in the lower a bear on a blue field.


The provincial Marshals of Oszmiana before the Partitions were (in alphabetical order): Ludwig Jacob Chominski, h. Poraj (1717), Nicholas Chrapowicki, h. Gozdawa & Samuel Jerome Kociell, h. Pelikan (1683); Marcin Oskierko, h. Murdelio (1765); Nicholas Wladyslaw Przezdziecki (1672); Nicholas Kristof Szors, h. Mora (1637); Anthony Sulistrowski, h. Lubicz (1747); Kristof Stachowski, h. Oronczyk & Thoma s Wolan, h. Lis (1632); Alexander Wolan & Jan Zenowicz from Bratozyna Deszpot (1648); and Kristof Zenowicz, h. his own person (1697). After the Commonwealth Partitions, marshals were: N. Achmatowicz (1863); Brochocki, h. Osorya (1862); Casimir Czechowicz, h. Ostoja (1825); Aurelian Dmochowski, h. Pobog (1853); Casimir Feldman & Jan Lubanski, h. Poraj (1853); Francis Pozniak, h. Belty (1798); Adam Przeciszewski, h. Grzymala (1805); Wladyslaw Puslowski, h. Szeliga following a change & Joseph Sulistrowski, h. Lubicz (1846); Joseph Tyszkiewicz, h. Leliwa (1831); Alexander Tiufiajew (1871); Thomas and Jacob Umiastowski, h. Roch (1809); Konstanty Umiastowski (1858); Casimir Umiastowski & Marcin Skarbek Wazynski, h. Abdank (1820); Edward Wazynski (1840), Ignace Zaba, h. Kosciesza (1811); and Anthony Zaba (1812).


Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1886, vol. 7, pp. 753-754]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.