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Słownik Geograficzny Translations

Zabrzez

3) also Zabrzezie, Zaberezie, a peasant village on the conjunction of the Isloch and Berezina Rivers in the 4th police district of Oszmiana province. It is also in a gmina rural district within Bakszty gmina and treasury estate (.6 miles away); it lies 46 miles from Oszmiana and 38 miles to Dziewieniszki and contains 97 homes with 749 inhabitants (9 Catholic and the rest Orthodox (348 taxable inhabitants from the 1865 census).

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 209]

This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


Zakrzewo

4.) A church village in the District of Zlotow. On the railway line between Pila and Chojnice. Having a post office, railway station and Catholic school with 2 classes and an area of 1212l hectares (864 in fields under cultivation, 87 in meadows and 15 in forest). In 1885 it had 160 dwellings, 195 homesteads, 1031 inhabitants of which 815 were Catholic and 206 were Lutheran and 10 Jews. In the colony of Zakrzewo (Nowe Zakrzewo) were an additional 44 dwellings, 269 inhabitants. The village was formerly divided into three parts: in one lived the Poles, in the second, the German Catholics, and in the third, the Lutherans. The church is built of stone, with the steeple having half-timbered walls. Started in 1839 and consecrated in 1842. It is under the patronage of the Prince and dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene. In recent times it was restored and adorned with four stained glass windows. These windows were the workmanship of the firm, Bednar in Wroclaw. They represent St. Mary Magdalene, the Lord Jesus, Blessed Virgin Mary and St Joseph. At the base are found a number of inscriptions, attesting to the 4 benefactors to whom these are attributed. The church existed under the Confraternity of the Immaculate Virgin Mary from 1851 and the Confraternity of the Solemnity since 1859. Mission churches are in Glomska and Wisniewka. Villages in the parish are, Zakrzewo, Potulice, Lakie, Orowo, Lipka, Koenigsdorf, Carlsdorf, Gross Friedricksberg, Klein Friedricksberg, Mittel Friedricksberg, Wersk, Prochy, and Stalluhnermuehle. Here the parish (deanery of Kaminsko) in 1894 had 3525 souls. The rectory farm in Zakrzewo has 470 Prussian morg. To the hospital belong about 210 morg. The village of Zakrzewo came into existence in 1453. In the XVII century it belonged to the Zakrzewski Family. Later to the Krolikowski Family after their visiting Trebica, and from 1656 it belonged to Andrzej Grudzinski, the Governor of Kalisz (p. 164). In the Topography by Goldbeck from 1789 it was listed as a noble village of 82 homesteads. (p. 267).

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, pp. 320-21]

This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.

Zakrzewo - powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawskie (Russian Poland)


Zalesie (Galicia)

1.) a village in the Borszczów district; 24 km to the south-east of Borszczów, 11 km to the south-east of a district court and a post office in Mielnica. There is the village called Nowosiółka in the south-east; the village called Iwanie Puste is in the south-west; Germakówka lies in the west and the north; there is a Podolian gubernia in the east. The Zbrucz river flows along the eastern border. The farm buildings are situated in the south-east. The major estate has 84 morgs of farmland, 66 of meadows and gardens, 5 of pastureland, 156 of forest. The minor estate has 1410 morgs of farmland, 323 of meadows and gardens, 61 of pastureland, 3 of forest. There were 408 houses in 1890. The commune had 1819 inhabitants in the same year. There were 4 houses and 25 residents in the manorial area. (1476 Greek Catholics, 291 Roman Catholics, 89 Jews, 1468 Ruthenians, 376 Poles in the commune). Roman Catholics belonged to the parish in Krzywcze; the Greek-Catholic parish loco. The Kudryniecki deanery. The village of Nowosiółki belongs to the Krzywcze parish. There is an Orthodox church, a standard school building and a gmina loan society with the capital of 1651 Polish reński zloty.

2.) Z. or Podlesie, a grange and the housing estate in Czernica, in the Brody district.

3.) Z., the area in Przewłoka, in the Buczacz district.

4.) Z. or Zalesie Koropieckie; a village in the Buczacz district; 18 km to the south-west of Buchacz; 18 km to the north-west of a district court in Potok Złoty; 9 km to the south of a post office in Monasterzyska. There are the following places in the area: Weleśniów – in the north and in the north-west; Pużniki – in the east and in the south; Majdan – in the south-west. The Koropiec river flows through the north-western area. The housing estate are in the river valley. The major estate has 211 morgs of farmland, 47 of meadows and gardens, 55 of pastureland, 301 of forest. The minor estate has 209 morgs of farmland, 217 of meadows and gardens, 6 of pastureland, 11 of forest. In 1890, 71 houses were there  and 408 residents in the commune; 5 houses and 31 residents in the manorial area; (291 Greek Catholics, 128 Roman Catholics, 20 Jews, 348 Ruthenians, 91 Poles). The Roman-Catholic parish is in Barysz; the Greek-Catholic parish in Weleśniów. There is an Orthodox church, a standard school building and agmina loan society with the capital of 371 Polish reński zloty.

5.) Z., a grange in the manorial area in Stare Sioło; the Cieszanów district.

6.) Z., a village in the Czortków district; 14 km to the south-east of a district court in Czortków; 7 km to the south-west of the post office in Jezierzany. The villages of Ułaszkowce and Sosołówka lie in the west, Uhryń lies in the south-west, Szmańkowczyki in the north, the villages of Kolendziany and dawidkowce in the east, Piłatkowce and Jezierzany (both villages in the Borszczów district) are in the south-east. The Młynka stream originates in the south-east, it flows in the middle of the south-western area and it flows into the Seret river, in the area of Uhryń. The housing estate is located in the stream valley. The major estate has 1207 morgs of farmland, 93 of meadows and gardens, 11 of pastureland, 762 of forest. The minor estate has 1903 morgs of farmland, 180 of meadows and gardens, 33 of pastureland, 47 of forest. 315 houses were there in 1890 and 1871 residents in the commune; 40 houses, 211 residents in the manorial area; (1375 Greek Catholics, 607 Roman Catholics, 100 Jews, 1821 Ruthenians, 262 Poles). The Roman-Catholic parish in Jezierzany; the Greek-Catholic parish in Uhryń. There is an Orthodox church dedicated to St. Michael, a standard school building and a gmina loan society with the capital of 3642 Polish reński zloty.

7.) Z., a brewery and an inn in the Uniatycze manorial area; in the Drohobyce district.

8.) Z., a village; the Gródek district; 18 km to the south-east of Gródek; its southern area is not far from the post office in Janowo near Lwów. The Janowski district court is located in the village. Stradcz is situated in the east; Wielkopole in the south; Wola Dobrostańska in the west. Houses are near the Wereszyca river. The major estate (the possession of Count Agenor Gołuchowski) has 18 morgs of farmland, 25 of meadows and gardens, 12 of pastureland, 434 of forest. The minor estate has 108 morgs of farmland, 59 of meadows and gardens, 34 of pastureland, 15 of forest. They recorded in the year of 1890: 28 houses and 146 residents in the commune; 14 houses and 104 residents in the manorial area; (143 Greek Catholics, 76 Roman Catholics, 28 Jews, 3 persons of other religion; 136 Ruthenians, 108 Poles, 6 Germans). The Roman- and Greek-Catholic parishes are in Janów. Zalesie, which is the part of Janowski Starosty, makes the profit of 400,16 Polish zloty as recorded in 1759. Refer to Janów (vol. 3, p. 424).

9.) Z., a group of houses and a forester’s lodge in Chołojów; the Kamionka Strumiłowa district.

10.) Z., a group of houses in Niestanice; the Kamionka Strumiłowa district.

11.) Z., a group of houses in Sałasze; the Rawa Ruska district.

12.) Z., the suburb of Pomorzany; the Złoczów district.

13.) Z., a part of Woroniaki, in the Złoczów district; 6 km to the south-west of the district court and the post office in Złóczów. The village of Jasionowce is situated to the north and to the north-east of Zalesie; Woroniaki is to the east; Szpikłosy is to the south-east; Majdan is to the south; Lackie Małe is to the west. Farm buildings are situated in the north-west. The major estate has 148 morgs of farmland, 109 of meadows and gardens, 36 of pastureland, 1187 of forest. The minor estate has 495 morgs of farmland, 458 of meadows and gardens, 25 of pastureland, 7 of forest. In 1890, there were 106 houses, 619 residents in the commune; 4 houses and 29 residents in the manorial area; (468 Greek Catholics, 173 Roman Catholics, 7 Jews, 592 Ruthenians, 56 Poles). The Roman Catholic residents belong to the parish in Złoczów; the Greek Catholics belong to the parish in Jasionowce. There is an Orthodox church dedicated to St. Parasceva, which is made of bricks. There is also a standard school building where Russian is the language of instruction.

14.) Z. Olszańskie or Zamaryleskie, Mazury; a part of Krasiczyn in the Przemyśl district.

15.) Z., refer to Zaleśce.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, pp. 340-341]

This translation, by Jaromir Iwanciow, is used by permission.


Zamiechów

Zamiechów, a town on the Żwan river (the river is also called Zamiechówka) which is the Dniestr river tributary; the Uszyce district; the Wierzbowice postal area; the commune of Pilipkowce; the nearest court and a post office is in Letniowce (Nowa Uszyca); the town is situated 7 versts from Uszyca and 25 versts from Bar; there are 210 houses (of which 112 are freehold); 1674 residents (950 Jews); there is an orthodox church, a parish church of the Roman Catholics, a synagogue, a school (since 1885) and a tannery. There is a market held in the town every second Tuesday, where lots of cattle is sold; a fair is held here, too. There are 16 shops; 21 craftsmen; 602 tithes of peasants’ land; 2026 tithes of land belonging to the estate; 37 tithes belonging to the Orthodox Church. The area is flat; hummocky in parts. The orthodox church, which is dedicated to St. Dymitri, was built in 1863. The congregation consists of 849 people. The Roman Catholic church, dedicated to St. Jan Nepomucen, is made of bricks and was raised in 1808. The idea of raising the brick church was implemented by Ławski who was a local vicar. The new church replaced the old church of 1749, which was a wooden one. It was consecrated in 1841 by Mackiewicz, a bishop. The Roman Catholic parish is the part of the Uszycki deanery and 1349 people are listed there. These people, apart from Zamiechów, live in the following villages: Boguszówka, Brahiłówka, Cywkowce, Howory, Hule, the grange of Jaryca, Janówka, Kałówka, Koniszczów, Kowalówka, the grange of Milewska, Nowosiółka, Pilipkowce, Słobódka Murowana, Szczerbowce and a small settlement which bears the same name, Woronowce, the grange of Wysoko, Zaboroznowce and Żabińce. The town has no historical importance. Probably, it was established by the Zamiechowski family who lived in Podolia in the XV and XVI centuries. There is no information when the town was granted the charter. The town was plundered by Cossack rebels in 1734. The town belonged to the Humiecki family during the last century, later to the Starzyński family, then to the Bogusz family and, now, it is the property of Ms. Sobańska, Ms. Darowska and Mr. Morawski, who are heirs to the family of Bogusz. A poet was born here. His name was Stanisław Starzyński but he was better known under his pen-name: Stach z Zamiechowa (Stach from Zamiechów).

Zamiechów, a village in the Jarosław district; it lies in the plains; 8.4 km to the south-west of Radymno; on the Młynka stream which flows into the Łęg river (the San river tributary). It is bordered by Lutków in the east, by Łowce in the north, by Dobkowice in the west and by Kaszyce in the south. There is a Greek-Catholic chaplaincy loco and an orthodox church, which is made of wood. The villages of Dmytrowice, Ciemierzowice, Kaszyce and Lutków belong to the chaplaincy. The parish consists of of 31 morgs of farmland, 2 morgs of pastureland and of a percent of the indemnification amounting to 3866 Polish zloty reński. There is a school building. There are 94 houses in Zamiechów, 535 residents, 325 Greek Catholics, 196 roman Catholics and 14 Jews. The real estate belongs to Włodzimierz Ustrzycki and it has 662 morgs; the municipal property has 483 morgs. The soil is alumina. It is fertile.

Zamiechówka, a small river; refer to Żwan.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, pp. 369-370]

This translation, by Jaromir Iwanciow, is used by permission.


Zamość Stary

1.) Zamość Stary [Old Zamość], a village and estate on an unnamed stream, a tributary of the Topornica river, by the highway from Lublin to the Galician border. It is in the county of Zamość, gmina [district] and parish of Zamość Stary, 16 versts north of the town of Zamość, 23 from Krasnystaw, 69 from Lublin, 42 from Rejowiec. It has a parish church made of stone, a local court of district II, and district offices; it is served by the post office in neighboring Chomeciska. At present the village has 6 manorial houses, 22 peasant settlements, 361 morgs of farmland and meadows, and 340 inhabitants (19 Orthodox and 5 Jewish). The village Wierzba Plebanska, formerly belonging to the church, has 10 houses, 70 morgs, and 226 Catholic inhabitants. A manorial farmstead formerly belonging to the pastor, now the property of collegiate counselor Tichowicz, has 1 house and 140 morgs. In 1827 there were 44 houses and 360 inhabitants.

The estate of Zamość Stary, including the manorial farmsteads Borowina, Chomeciska, Monastyrek, Sulmice and Wiszenki, are part of the entailed estate of the Zamoyskis, which covers 11,812 morgs. In 1551 the parish church, Assumption of Our Lady, was converted to a Calvinistic congregation by Stanislaw Zamoyski, castellan of Chelm, the father of Jan, who subsequently renovated it and gave it back to the Catholics to use. Its consecration by Roman Catholic ritual was performed by Stanislaw Gomulinski, of the Jelita coat of arms, bishop of Chelm, in 1593. In 1844 it was restored once more. There is also a shelter for the elderly, maintained with income from a capital of 1,695 silver rubles and with proceeds from lease of a meadow belonging to that house. The following belong to Zamość Stary parish, which is in Zamość deanery: Chomeciska Duze and Chomeciska Male, Krasne, Majdan Sitaniecki, Ruskie Piaski, Zamość Stary, Wierzba, Wirkowice, and Wislowiec, as well as Tarzymiechy in Krasnystaw county, with a total of 4,534 souls (as of 1888). In 1874 there were 4,164 souls, and in 1879 there were 4,679.

The gmina or district of Zamość Stary consists of the following villages: Borowina, Chomeciska Duze, Chomeciska Małe, and Chomeciska Szlacheckie (also called Poczta), Debowiec, Gruszka Duza and Gruszka Mala, Krasne, Majdan Sitaniecki, Monastyrek, Stary Zamość, Sulmice, Udrycze, Wislowiec, Wiszenki, Wierzba Ordynacka and Wierzba Plebanska, and Zabytow. The district occupies an area of 16,899 morgs, 237 prety (rods). 11,078 morgs and 37 prety are farmland, meadows, 1,501 morgs and 37 rods are meadows, and 1,324 morgs and 122 rods are waters and swamps and unused land. Buildings occupy 691 morgs and 280 rods. Forests are divided into 2,087 morgs of the entailed estate, and 217 belonging to Udrycze.

The soil is humus, partly sand and clay. In the district there are two Orthodox churches (in Monastyrek and Sulmice), a Catholic church, a school, a water-mill, a fishery and model farm in Udrycze, numerous apiaries (with 10 to 60 hives) and orchards (1 to 20 morgs). The district court belongs to the conference of justices of the peace in Zamość. From among the local youth Karol Namyslowski formed an orchestra known throughout the land.

This village was the nest of the powerful and wealthy clan that took its name from it [i. e., the Zamoyskis]. Bartosz Paprocki, writing and publishing his Herby rycerstwa [Knights’ Coats of Arms] in 1584, had not yet come to feel his later hatred toward Jan Zamoyski, and in view of his relationship with the royal court and the Gorajskis, had information from good sources on the clan of that commander and politician, who was already famous. He gave the following details, which we supplement with data from Dunczewski’s Armorial.

In 1447 a certain Tomasz from Laznin (Lazin, today in Lowicz county, Oszkowice parish, and in the 16th century the minor nobility the Lazinskis lived there, also owning land in the adjoining villages) acquired from Andrzej Piwo the village of Zamośćie and Wierzbie, in what was then the province of Belz. The sale was confirmed by Wladyslaw, prince of Mazovia and Ruthenia. This Tomasz, evidently an enterprising man full of energy, lived over 100 years. He passed his energy on to his descendants, who, having found in the lands of Ruthenia conditions favorable for knightly activities and colonization, developed uncommon activity and emphasized a variety of skills. It is surely the son of this Tomasz, Maciej, that served in the Hungarian army during the reign of King Matyasz and fought with the Tatars during the reign of Olbracht.

In castle records of Przemysl it is recorded that Mikolaj Rej showed a 1508 legal writ of the judge and associate judge of the Chelm region, by which Elzbieta, the wife of Maciej Zamoyski, Stanislaw alias Czeder, Pawel and Olechno, full bothers from Zapoborze (perhaps Zaborze or Zaburze, today in Zamość county) and Kobyle, sold in perpetuity all the lands they inherited from Pawel Chelmczyk, their uncle, and Barbara Rzeszowska, their aunt, heirs to the villages of Kobyle, Rybie, Stajne, and Wola Kobylska, for 660 zlotys (Materials for a biography of Rej, collected by Kniaziolucki, No. 731).

Of his three sons, Pawel owned property in Piaski, Jan in Wierzbie, and Wieczeslaw in Zukow (about 24 km. east of Zamość Stary). The son of this Wieczeslaw, Piotr, owned Niewirkow (about 12 km. south of Zukow). The family’s possessions grew along with the family. They did not own little half-lan properties, as did their predecessors in Great Poland, but acquired or founded at various times separate, dispersed properties in the vicinity of their original nest. Jan, the son of Pawel from Piaski, attained the position of rotmistrz [captain of the horse].

The most prominent figures, however, are two sons of Floryan, who, according to an act of entailment drawn up by Jan Zamoyski, was also supposedly the son of Tomasz. They styled themselves “de Zamoszcze in Tworyczow haeredes” [heir of Zamoszcze to Tworyczow] (Tworyczow is about 32 km. west of Zamość), and had in addition many other properties they evidently acquired later. Their father married Anna of Komorow (Komarow, now in Tomaszow county). In 1480 her dowry was recorded in Krasnystaw. His second wife was Jadwiga of Uhrynow. The elder brother, Mikolaj, first a knight and later a priest, canon of Krakow and pastor of Tarnow, referendary and secretary of King Zygmunt I, lived in close relationships with the Tarnowskis and Teczynskis. The second of the brothers, Szczesny, lord “na Skokowkach” [of Skokowki] (an estate he acquired along with his brother), Chelm chamberlain and judge, tribune of Belz, fought with the Tatars at Chmielnik. During this lord’s absence the Tatars attacked the manor in Skokowki, but a manorial servant, Scibor of Sitaniec, fought them off. In 1528 Zygmunt I gave Szczesny an estate and capital in the village of Plonce, which had come to him after Obermunt, the Chelm esquire carver, died without children. In addition Szczesny had capital in Hruszowo and Labunki. In 1524 along with his brother Mikolaj he issued a charter for the office and property of wojt to Jan Sarnicki in Sulow (32 km. west of Zamość, near Klemensowice, today the residence of heirs in tail). Present as witnesses were Mikolaj Gorajski and Stanislaw and Jan Huhrowiecki. He was married to the daughter of Stanislaw Smok of Golczyca (Gielczwia?) and later to Anna Ukrowska, whose dowry was recorded in 1528 in Krasnystaw. By his first wife he had sons, Stanislaw, Floryan and Mikolaj, who in 1548 divided their patrimony in Krasnystaw. A son of Szczesny, Stanislaw (died 1572 in his 53rd year), served in the army for 17 years, and as a reward for his services received the office and property of starosta of Belz and Zamch, and the castellany of Chelm. He married Anna Herburt of Miziniec (Mizyniec, in Przemysl county), and by her had a son born in 1541 in Skokowki, who was later a commander and chancellor. Rej, who as the owner of large estates in the Chelm region, was practically a neighbor of Zamoyski, dedicated an octet to him (“Stanislaw Zamośćki”) in his Zwierzyniec (1562). The religious views they shared increased the poet’s affection for him, as Stanislaw was an adherent of Calvinism and organized a congregation in Zamość Stary. After Herburt he had two more wives, Laszcz and Orzechowska. Rej praises his knightly character and says that although he was “home-trained,” he was not to be deceived by any “little Italian.”

Other branches of the Jelita clan had their representatives in this area. Stanislaw of Gomolin (near Piotrkow) was the bishop of Chelm in the late 16th century.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, pp. 373-375]

This translation, by Magdalena Pelko and edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Zawkrze

Zawkrze or Zawkrzeńska lands, on the left bank of the Wkry [river] (right inlet Narwa), is situated in the former Płock województwo (province) and divided itself into the powiats (counties): Szreń, Niedzborz and Mlawa. Documents already mention these lands from the years: 1363, 1367 and 1393 (Polish Diplomatic Code, II, 741, 751, 798). An endowment of the Sejm from the year 1726 appointed in Mława courts for these lands and permitted her to appoint officials. Siarczyński (Echard, Dykcyonarz geograficzny, Warsaw, 1782) says that the capital of the lands is the country town Zawkskrzyń "quite badly built". However, a town of this name did not exist, the only ancient village is Wkra, in today's Ciechanów powiat (county). Folk songs from this region were collected by Władysław Dębski.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 497]

This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by permission.


Zazdrość

Zazdrość, in German Sadrosch, a colony in Swiecie county, served by the railroad station and parish church in Sliwice. It covers 69 hectares. In 1885 there were 18 houses, 20 hearths, and 113 Roman Catholic inhabitants. In 1789 it was a wasteland with three hearths (see Goldbeck's Topogr., p. 196). [Rev. Fr.]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 504]

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Zazule

Zazule, a settlement on the Mołczadka, by where a small nameless river empties into it from the left bank, in Nowogródek county.

Zazule 1) a group of houses in Szkło, Jaworów county. 2) Z., a group of houses in Łuka, Złoczów county. 3) Z. A village in Złoczów county, northeast of the county court and post office in Złoczów. The village’s buildings lie scattered among the woods on the expanse between Łuka and Trościaniec [Тростянець] as far as Jelechowice [Єлиховичі] and the Sasów [Сасів] Hills. The village developed from individual forest settlements on the grounds of the former Złoczów estate. These settlements were united after 1848 in a single administrative gmina. The whole gmina consists of the following larger and smaller groups of houses: Zazule, Monastyrek, Obertasów (manor, limestone and stone quarries), Kozaki (also called Kozakowa Góra), Góra Orłowa, Bracka Góra, Sawrasowa Góra, Palkowa Góra, Bzowy, Kupcowe (also called Kupcowa Góra), Na Osmalonej, Ożarówka (manor, limestone and stone quarries), Pereliske, Budnik, W Sosnach, and Wyłom. These names refer either to a group of farms, consisting of several to more than a dozen, or to individual homesteads. Zazule comprises a single cadastral community with Złoczów. In 1890 there were 285 houses in the gmina, and 1,734 inhabitants, with 18 houses and 155 inhabitants on the grounds of the manor (821 Roman Catholic, 955 Greek Catholic, 113 Jews; 1,203 Ruthenians, 686 Poles). The Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic churches are in Złoczów. In that section of Zazule called Monastyrek there was a wooden [Greek Catholic] church belonging to the Basilians in Złoczów. Around 1873 that church was sealed and taken down. In it there were portraits of the Sobieskis (Sokalski, Okrąg szkolny złoczowski [Złoczów School District], Złoczów, 1885, p. 200). — Lu[dwik] Dz[iedzicki]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 505]

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Zbaraż [now Zbarazh, Ukraine]

[in Ukrainian Збараж, Zbarazh] 1.) a county seat in eastern Galicia, located between 49° 37' and 49° 42'  north longitude and 43° 25' and 43° 31' east latitude from Ferro1. To the northeast lie Bazarzyńce, Tarasówka and Niższe Łubianki; to the southeast Kretowce, Hrycówce and Stryjówka; to the north Wałachówka and Zarudzie; to the west Czerniechowce, Zbaraż Stary and Załuże; and to the northwest Załuże. The Gniezna, a tributary of the Sereth, flows through the town. The town’s buildings lie in its river valley; to the northwest is the suburb Załużeckie, to the southeast the suburb Przegrodzkie, and to the north the suburb Tarnopolskie. The major estate [i.e., property owned by the nobility] has 134 mórgs2 of cultivated farmland, 40 of meadows and gardens, and 5 of pastures; the minor estate [i.e., property owned by peasants] 3047 mórgs of cultivated farmland, 362 of meadows and gardens, 139 of pastures, and 67 of forest.

In the year 1890, there were 8,785 inhabitants (2,992 Roman Catholics, 2,161 Greek Catholics, 3,632 Jews; 2,225 Rusyns, 6,532 Polish, 13 Germans). There is a Roman Catholic parish in this city, deanery of Tarnopol, archdiocese of Lwów. The year the parish was founded is unknown (1627?). From the renewal circa 1726 of a donation by Joseph Potocki from Potok, voivode of Kiev, it is clear that this parish had already existed for many years. These villages belong to the parish: Bazarzyńce, Czernichowce, Dobromirka, Głęboczek, Hrycowce, Huszczanki, Jacowe, Kapuścińce, Klebanówka, Korszyłówka, Krasnosielce, Kretowce, Lisieczyńce, Łubianki Niższe and Łubianki Wyższe, Łozówka, Obodówka, Ohrymowce, Roznoszyńce, Sieniachówka, Sieniawa, Stary Zbaraż, Stryjówka, Suchowce, Supranówka, Szyły, Szelpaki, Tarasówka, Terpiłówka, Wałachówka, Werniaki, Załuże, Zarudzie with Maksymówka, and Zarudeczko. There is no parish church; the Bernardine monks’ church, to which the parish belongs, is used for services. The Bernardine monastery was founded here by Jerzy, prince of Zbaraż, in the year 1627. After the monastery’s destruction by Turks in 1675, Stanisław Potocki, voivode of Kiev, restored it (see Barącz, Memorial of the Bernardine Order in Poland, Lwów, 1874, page 384).

There is a Greek Catholic parish in the town, belonging to the deanery of Zbaraż. Bazarzyńce and Tarasówka belong to the parish. The Orthodox parish church, Resurrection of Christ the Lord, was consecrated by Archbishop Sembratowicz on 20 September 1879, after it had been renovated due to the efforts of parish priest Rev. Kostecki. Despite that, however, it still only a branch church. These parishes belong to the deanery of Zbaraż: Bogdanówka, Czerniechowce, Czernielów Ruski, Dobrowody, Hnilice Wielkie, Huszczanki, Iwanczany, Klebanówka, Koszlaki, Krasnosielce, Kujdańce, Łubianki Wyżne, Medyń, Nowe Sioło, Palczyńce, Sieniawa, Skoryki, Stehnikowce, Stryjówka, Stupki, Supronówka, Szelpaki, Szyły, Terpiłówka,Toki, Zarubińce and Zbaraż Stary. At one time there was a Basilian monastery in Zbaraż. Founded by the dukes Zbaraski, it was destroyed in 1786. (See Rękopisy w bibliotece Ossolińskiej [Manuscripts in the Ossoliński Library], No. 1087, page 251, and Number 2074, “History Book of Zbaraż monastery of St. Basil”).

Zbaraż is the seat of a starostwo3, the county court, county council, post and telegraph offices. It has a 5-class school for males covered under the budget, as well as a 5-class school for females, also budgeted. Assets of the municipal property total 79,092 Rhenish złotys, liabilities 8,928 Rhenish złotys. Income in 1895 was 11,720 Rhenish złotys. The gmina loan society has a capital 7,220 of Rhenish złotys.

Ruthenian chronicles mentioning Leszek the White’s support of Daniel Romanowicz for the Galician throne include Zbaraż with Trembowla among the gróds4 where battles took place during the years 1211 to 1213 ....

Stryjkowski 5 maintains that in 1393 Witold,6 having seized the duchy of Siewierz,7 then ceded to prince Dmitri Korybut certain castles in Volhynia for it, among them Zbaraż. On 11 January 1442, as Grand Duke of Lithuania, Kazimierz Jagiellończyk granted Zbaraż to Dennis Muksiejewicz in lifelong ownership. Paprocki, 8 Stryjkowski and Twardowski9 in Legacy derive the Zbaraski’s from the ducal family line of Korybut, descendants of Olgierd,10 ruling duke of the Duchy of Siewierz. This is, however, a later incorrect genealogy. The protoplast of the family line was kniaź 11 Wasil Nieświcki, whom Bartoszewicz12 shows as descending from Nieświcz at Łuck. A document from 1461 calls him “kniaź Neswizki.” By 1434 Zbaraż belonged to kniaź Fedko Nieświcki. J. Wolff (Kniaziowie litewsko-ruscy [Lithuanian-Ruthenian Ukrainian princes], page 606 and onward) leans towards a Volhynian origin of the family line, and despite the spelling in the 1461 document derives them not from Nieświż but from Nieświcz. In the year 1463, after the death of Wasil, his sons “the kniaziowie Wasil, Semen and Sołtan Wasilewicze, natives and heirs of Zbaraż,” made a division by which Wasil received Zbaraż and the villages Jankowce and Iwaczów Górny; Semen received Kolodeń and the villages Czernehów and Iwaczów Górny; and Sołtan received the Horodek manor and villages: two Wisznewcy, Oleksiniec, and in addition Nowy and Stary Maniów along with villages from their mother, and they have these properties as lifelong possessions”. The youngest brother, Sołtan, died before the year 1472. In 1461 the second of the brothers, Semen, purchased Rowno and villages in Łuck county for 18,000 groszy, and he styled himself “kniaź Nieswizski.” In an act of division from 1463 and a document from 1470 he is called “kniaź Zbarażski.” After the death of Sołtan, Semen took Maniów and Łopuszna, and his nephew Michał (Wasil’s son) received Wiszniowiec. Semen, died prior to 1 April 1481 as the Krzemieniec starosta. His surviving widow likewise styled herself kniaziowa (wife of the prince) of Rowno, and her daughter Anastazya married kniaź Semen Holszański. The oldest son of kniaź Wasil, Wasil Wasilewicz Zbarażski, died before 1475. During his time Zbaraż was burnt by the Tatars, in the year 1474. His wife was taken prisoner, but his two sons and two daughters escaped. The castle was burnt downed. Długosz calls the kniaź “Iwan.” Kromer13 and Bielski14 also mention this fact, with some differences in details. The sons who survived Wasil started three powerful family lines. From Michał came the Wiśniowiecki’s, Semen continued the Zbraski line, and from Fedor came the Porycki’s and Woroniecki’s. Semen’s son Andrzej, who married Anna Herburt, was survived by five sons, of whom Jerzy (Jurij) in the year 1570 ruled a fourth part Zbaraż and drew up his will in this castle in 1580;a  second son Stefan, voivode of Witebsk (in 1555), who married a second time to the princess Mścisław and a third time to Dorota Firlej, was the founder of the castle and town of Suraż; a third son Mikołaj, starosta of Krzemieniec, married to Andrzej Sanguszkowicz’s widow Hanna Deszpot, when dying in year 1574 left the whole property to the starosta’s office and 180,000 groszy at Krzemieniec to his son Janusz, who was known as a brave warrior from his valiant deeds in battle with the Tatars and would become the voivode of Bracław, and would receive the starostwo of Pinsk as well as Krzemieniec. Dying in year 1608, he was survived by his sons with his wife Anna Czetwertyński, Jerzy and Krzysztof. The younger son Krzysztof, starosta of Krzemieniec, royal Master of the Horse,15 famed for his missions to Constantinople in 1622 and 1623 and exalted by Twardowski,16 died in 1627. The elder son, Jerzy, castellan of Kraków, departed this world in 1631 in Kraków. Both were buried in that city in the church of the Holy Trinity. They died unmarried. With them the Zbaraski line ended. Jerzy broadened the Zbaraż fortifications and founded the Bernardine monastery in the city, as well as the church of St George in 1627.

After the Zbaraski’s, Zbaraż passed in 1631 into the possession of their nephew, duke Janusz Wiśniowiecki (died 1636), and then to his son Dymitr, castellan of Kraków and Grand Royal Hetman17 (died 1682). Both resided most often  in the Zbaraż castle. Dymitr especially provided it with all the necessities for war and arranged it magnificently. During his ownership the castle played a major role in history several times. When panic seized everyone after the defeat at Pilawiec in 1648, the castle remained without defence “despite ramparts of cut stone, three mounds high,” despite “new gabions, flanks, breastworks and fifty cannons.” Chmielnicki18 took it without firing a shot, “and he found equipment and wealth there” (as Twardowski cries out in the poem Wojna domowa z Kozaki i Tatary [The Civil War with the Cossacks and Tatars], Kalisz, 1681, page 36).

In 1649, however, during the memorable siege of the Polish camp here, the castle provided the main resistance point and forefront of the defence. The castle was defended at that time by Stanisław Lanckoroński, Mikołaj Ostroróg, Sieniawski and both Sobieski’s, Marek and Jan (Twardowski, loc. cit., page 62). All Chmielnicki’s efforts broke against the defenders’ heroic persistence during that month-long siege. The castle’s strong fortifications and cannon fire caused severe losses in the Cossack ranks (see “Oblężenie Zbaraża i pokój pod Zborowem” [The Zbaraż siege and the peace of Zborów"] in sketches by the historian L. Kubala, Lwów, 1880 --“Dyaryusz zbaraskiego oblężenia 1649 r.” [Diary of the Zbaraż siege in 1649], Manuscript in the Jagiell. Library, 5, EE, III, 1, page 861. -- “Historya prawdziwa Bohdana Chmielnickiego gdy był pod Zbarażem i Zborowem” [True Story of Bogdan Chmielnicki When He Was at Zbaraż and Zborów], from an old manuscript in Pamiątki historyczyne [Historic Memorials], Zieliński, 1841, pages 40-74).

Ulryk Werdum, traveling in Poland 1670-1672, wrote: “Zbaraż is a town with the title of a duchy and belongs to duke Dymitr Wiśniowiecki. Nowy Zbaraż [= New Zbaraż] lies on a plain by a great forest; Stary Zbaraż [= Old Zbaraż] is on a hill, about half a mila [roughly 2.3 miles] from there. It is a beautiful castle, built high from white stones. Nowy Zbaraż, on the other hand, was ravaged at the beginning of the Cossack rebellion. Nothing of it remains except great ruins, which still gleam from far away with their great whiteness” (Liske, Cudzoziemcy w Polsce [Foreigners in Poland], page 158).

The castle experienced its second memorable catastrophe in 1675 (August 2nd), when it was captured by the Turks under Ibrahim Szyszman, “so miserably that it could not be any more miserable,” Sobieski wrote to his wife. “It was full of a hundred people serving in it, as well as a great number of the peasantry, almost all of them from that part of the land of Volhynia, nearly five thousand. These peasants, concerned for their cottages, wanted to defend the town as well. The enemy attacked the city strongly and set it on fire. Those who survived the fire fled to the castle, but Turks, along with the Horde, cut half of them off from the castle and together attacked all the way up to the gate itself. After they had suffered two assaults the other peasants, who were in the castle, revolted and began to hang out the white flag, expecting the Turks would let up if they surrendered. Upon seeing this, a captain of General Kącki, a Frenchman named Desotel from Picardy, who was in command of 60 Hungarian dragoons, in addition to other soldiers, did not want to allow this and wished to put up a defense. The peasants themselves rushed at the commanding officer, tying him up and handing him over to the enemy, and voluntarily opened the castle, in which there were 30 cannon. Upon which the Turks cut them all down, respecting no one, and destroyed the castle with powder and burned down the city. Several hundred men remained, the prime of the white-skinned youth, and they were all taken prisoner.” (Listy Jana Sobieskiego [Letters of Jan Sobieski], published by A. Helcel, page 268).

Duke Dymitr Wiśniowiecki restored the castle like new, and he and his successors kept it in a defendable condition. Thanks to this it withstood a siege in 1734 (Rev. S. Barącz, Memorial of the History of Poland, Lwów, 1885, page 263). After the death of Michał, voivode of Wilno, the last of the dukes Wiśniowiecki (died 1774), Zbaraż and estates came under the ownership of the house of Potocki, after long legal disputes. It was maintained in its entirety until the beginning of present century. Around the year 1833, a sugar factory was installed in the castle, which went bankrupt after several years (see Rozmaitości [Miscellany], Lwów, 1833, Number 14). Till then the castle was almost entirely preserved in its general outlines, but it was neglected and deserted.

It lies on the eastern side of the town, on a flat ridge of lofty hills that end in an abrupt wall toward the town, and decline easily to the south. Czołowski gave a description (“Dawne zamki i twierdze na Rusi halickiej” [Ancient castles and fortresses in the Halicz region of Ruthenia] in Teka konserwatorska, Lwów, 1892, page 123). “Three kilometers west of the castle in Stary Zbaraż the ruins of a second, incomparably older castle arise. They lie on a steep ledge of a lofty, rocky mountain. Reconstructing the shape of this castle is difficult, as it has been destroyed down to the foundations. Only remnants of the walls from the precipice remain, and part of the entrance gate” (Czołowski, loc. cit., page 124).

In Pawlikowski’s collection in Lwów there is a view of the Zbaraż castle (Numbers 5612 and 5614; see also Lwowianin, 1841, page 169). Regarding the extent of the Zbaraż estate see the entry for Wołyń [Volhynia] (Volume XIII, page 927).

Notes:

1 Ferro, now called Hierro, in the Canary Islands, was long the westernmost point known to Europeans and was used for measuring longitude before Greenwich, England was selected as the standard. Hierro lies about 18 degrees west of Greenwich, so to get the correct longitude for places in Eastern Europe by modern standards, subtract 18 degrees from the “Ferro longitudes.”2 mórg - a unit of land measurement, the size of which varied by province. In Galica, 1 mórg typically = 0.631 acres.

3starostwo - the office, jurisdiction, or property of a starosta, a kind of chief or district official.

4 gród - a settlement enclosed by walls or ramparts. In the Middle Ages, it served as a fortification and a center of political or administrative authority, and towns often developed around a gród.

5 Stryjkowski, Maciej - A Polish author and poet (1547-1593) who wrote Lithuanian and Rutherian histories.

Witold (1350-1430), Lithuanian Vytautus, grand duke of Lithuania, cousin of Ladislaus Jagiello, king of Poland.

7 The duchy of Siewierz, originally a Małopolska castellany on the border of Silesia, it became an independent duchy around 1330. The duchy had its own state offices, army and coinage. It was incorporated into the Republic of Poland in 1790.

8 Bartusz Paprocki (1544-1614) author of Crests of the Polish Knighthood, 26 volumes.

9 Samuel Twardowski (1600-1661), the most prominent poet of epic baroque poetry in Poland.

10 Olgierd (1296-1377), in Lithuanian Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. Father of Władysław Jagiełło (Jogaila).

11 kniaź a term used for a prince of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which included much of the territory of ancient Kievan Ruś, including Belarus and Ruthenia

12 Julian Bartoszewicz (1821-1870), a historian who researched the history of Poland in the XVIII century

13 Marcin Kromer (1518-1589), a historian who wrote about the population, customs and geography of Poland in Polonia, sive de situ, populis, etc.

14 Marcin Bielski (1495-1575), a historian, who wrote a chronicle of Polish history.

15 The Master of the Horse was established in the Middle Ages by the Polish royal court and between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries this office became primarily titular.

16 Twardowski exalted him in a work entitled: Przeważna legacya J.O. Książęcia Krzysztofa Zbaraskiego [The Important Mission of his Grace Duke Krzysztof Zbaraski]. This work details how Krzysztof ransomed hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski from the infamous Black Tower of Constantinople. The Turks took Koniecpolski prisoner after they defeated the Poles at the battle of Cecora in 1620.

17 Grand Royal Hetman was the highest commander in the army in both Poland and Lithuania from the XV century to 1795. He was typically appointed only in times of war by the king, but after 1581 the appointment was for life. From the XVI century onward, he had a field hetman as his deputy.

18 Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki (1595-1657), leader of the Cossacks, hetman of the Ukraine, was noted for his revolt against Poland and the Treaty of Pereyaslav which led to the annexing of Ukraine by the Russian empire. Henry Sienkiewicz described Chmielnicki’s war in his novel, With Fire and Sword.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 509-512]

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Zbaraż Nowy

New Zbaraż, a village on the left bank of the Desna [river], at the outlet of the Bytaj brook, powiat [county] of Berdyczów, in the 3rd political circuit, Samhorodek, about 50 wiorsta [about 33 miles] from Berdyczów, it has 552 inhabitants. According to Pochilewicz, in the year 1863 there were 609 inhabitants and 1,114 dziesiatyna [about 2,998 acres] here. It has an Orthodox church, Uśpieńska, erected from brick in the year 1799 on an ancient place and endowed with 44 dziesiatyna [about 118 acres] of land. The Bytaj brook separates the village Zbaraż from Hubin. In the distant past, Turkic tribes migrated into this region, they encamped in the then so called lands of Bołochow. Hubin even originated from this long ago era. Meanwhile Zbaraż was founded considerably later, it took its name from the Zbarazki prince in XVII century, who owned Przyłuka here, part of the area on which Zbaraż was settled. Along with Hubin, Zbaraż at that time was a place well safe from Tartar attacks; even today these two settlements are surrounded by ramparts and trenches. According to the rates for the podymne [hearth tax –see note 1] of the Braclaw province from the year 1629. Zbaraż was a miasteczko [small country town] and possessed 465 dym [homesteads] ( Jabłonowski, Ukraine, volume I, page 135). For the periods of the Cossack's wars behind Bohdan Chmielnieki [2], the Cossacks in the year 1651 were trapped in Zbaraż. Also, Lucas Hulewicz, rotmistrz [captain of horse] JKM [jego książęca mość – his princely majesty] writes: "that from the surrounding small country towns the Polish army, this is from Komora, from Przyłuka, Hubin and New Zbaraż, knocked out part of the Cossacks, drove away part" (Spominki native, volume II, page 71). From the Zbarazki prince, Zbaraż along with the Przyłuka tract were passed along to family relations and subsequently also to excellent families, such as: prince Wiszniowiecki, Warszychi, Pocieje and finally Borzęcki. In more recent times, Kopczyń came here, today Abramowicz [resides here].  Edw(ard) Rulikowski

 

Notes:

1) Podymne – a hearth tax introduced in Poland in the year 1629, it was paid by townsmen, peasants and landed nobility. The tax rate was dependent on the size of the building. Beginning in 1775, each chimney was taxed separately and cities and villages adopted varying rates depending on a person’s social class.The tax ended with the fall of the Polish commonwealth.

2) Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki (1595 – 1657), leader of the Cossacks, hetman of the Ukraine, noted for his revolt against Poland. The Cossacks were finally defeated this same year at the battle of Beresteczko. Henry Sienkiewicz described Chmielnicki’s war in his novel, With Fire and Sword.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 512]

 

This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by permission.


Zbaraż powiat

Zbaraż powiat[county] (Kummerberg’s map [1], sheets 23, 24, 34 – general coordinates Zbaraż 6. C. 33, Zbaraż 7. C. 33 and 34) lies between 49° 31',15 seconds and 49° 47',15 seconds latitude and between 43° 15' and 43° 57' longitude from Ferro [2]. To the south lie the powiats of Skałat and Tarnopol, to the west Tarnopol and Brody powiats, to the north and east Krzemieniec powiat. Zbaraż lies on the western side of the powiat. The easternmost edge (eastern border of Toki) is 35 kilometers from Zbaraż in a straight line; the southern edge (the end of Romanowe Sioło) is 15 kilometers away; the northwestern edge (the end of Iwanczany) 22 kilometers; the northern edge (the end of Zarudeczko) 11 kilometers.

Along the southern border of powiat lie the villages (from west to east): Iwanczany, Kobyla, Kurniki, Dobrowody, Netreba, Nowiki, Załuże, Bararzyńce, Tarasówka, Kransnosielce, Kapścińce, Zarudeczko, Siemiakówka, Sieniawa, Szyły, Lisienczyńce, Hnilice Wielkie, Koszlaki and Toki. Along the eastern border lie (from north to south): Falczyńce, Toki, Worobijówka and Prosowce. The area of powiat contains 85,456 square miriametrów [3]. The cadastral population [e.g., those owning land] is 62 (24 in the powiat’s obrębie sądu [judicial circuit] of the Nowesioło, and 38 in the powiat’s judicial circuit of the Zbaraż. In the powiat’s judicial circuit of Nowesioło lie the villages: Boganówska, Dobromirka, Hnilice Małe, Hnilice Wielki, Hołoszynice, Hołotki, Huszczanki, Jacowce, Klebanówka, Klimkowce, Korszyłówka, Koszlaki, Koziary, Łozówka, Medyń, Nowesioło, Obodówka, Palczyńce, Pieńkowce, Prosowce, Skoryki, Terpiłówka, Toki, Worobijówka (the most populous of them: Kozlaki 2310 inhabitants, Toki 2246 inhabitants, Bogdanówka 2030 inhabitants, the least Obodówka 34 inhabitants). In the powiat’s judicial circuit of Zbaraż lies the city Zbaraż and the villages: Bazarzyńce, Barezowica Mała, Czernichowce, Czumale, Dobrowody, Hłuboczek Mały, Hrycowce, Iwanczany, Iwaszkowce, Kapuścińce, Kobyla, Krasnosielce, Kretowce, Kujdańce, Kurniki, Lesieczyńce, Niższe Łubianki, Wyższe Łubianki, Netreba, Nowiki, Ochrymowce, Opryłowce, Romanowe Sioło, Roznoszyńce, Sieniachówka, Sieniawa, Stryjówka, Suchowce, Szelpaki, Szyły, Tarasówka, Wałachówka, Załuże, Zarubińce, Zarudeczko, Zarudzie and Zbaraż Stary ( the most populous of them: Czernichowce 2320 occupants, the least Zarudeczko 166 occupants). All the powiat lies in Dniester river – basin after the intervention of its tributaries: the Gnieszna (fed by the Seret) and the Zbrucza. The western part of powiat lies in Gnieszna river-basin, the eastern in the Zbrucza river-basin. The Gnieszna originates from the joining near Zbaraż of two streams, one which flows from the north from Krasosielec, and the second from the east from Łubianek. So the formed stream creates a pond in Bazarzyńce, and leaving from the pond proceeds by Zbaraż, at Załużku it turns itself to the south and rushes by Zbaraż Stary, Czernichów and Ochrymowce to Czernilowa Mazowiecki (in theTarnopol powiat). Within the limits of the Zbaraż powiat the Gniezna receives small streams on its left bank, for example the stream Kubań (in Czernichowie) and a second, more considerable [stream] in Ochrymowce (coming from Kretowiec). Also. a left side tributary on border of powiat originates from the Gniesza, the stream Rudka. In the southwest, a right side tributary originates on this side of powiat from the Gniezna, the stream Hnizdeczna. It was formed at Kurniki from two streams: the Berezowski and the Koblecki and flows on southeast by Dobrowody, Czumale, Opryłowce and along the borders of Dubowiec and Iwanszkowiec to Stechnikowiec (in the Tarnopol powiat). The Zburcz flows along eastern the border of powiat.. Into it, within boundaries of powiat, run from the right side small streams, from a more considerable stream the Walczek (called at its lower course, the Mill). To the Zbrucza also flowing from its right bank, the Samiec or Samec. In the year 1890, there was in the powiat 10,996 houses, 66,722 occupants, namely 4,067 houses, 24,626 inhabitants in the powiat’s judicial circuit of the Nowesioło, and 6,929 houses, 42,097 inhabitants in the powiat’s judicial circuit of Zbaraż. According to sex, there were 32,933 males, and 33,789 females. According to religion, there were 41,714 Greek-Catholics, 19,080 Roman- Catholics, 5,898 Jews, and 30 of different religions. Language used by the inhabitants: Rutherian 45,112, Polish 20,249, German 1,300. Since July of 1888, the powiat has created its own separate school district situated in Zbaraż. The Zaleszczyki [school] district also comes under this superintendent (which after September 1, 1896 will receive a separate superintendent). Presently in the powiat there exists, besides 5 - class male and female schools, 5 two-class schools (Czernichowce, Koszlaki, Stryjówka, Toki and Załuże) and 29 single class (Berezowica Mała, Bogdanówka, Dobromirka, Dobrowody, Hnilice Wielkie, Hniliczki, Jacowce, Klebanówka, Korzyłówka, Koziary, Krasnosielce, Knjdańce, Lisieczyńce, Łubianki Niżne and Wyżne, Łozówka, Medyń, Nowesioło, Ochrymowice, Palczyńce, Romanowe sioło, Sieniawa, Skoryki, Szelpaki, Szyły, Terpiłówka, Worobijówka, Zarudzie and Zbaraż Stary). With respect to language, 25 lecture in the Ruthenian language, 9 schools lecture in the Polish language and 2 in mixed languages. The obliged number of children required to attend everyday study (from 6 till 12 years) totalled in 1894/5 school year 7,906, meanwhile 5,130 attended; the obliged number of children required to attend supplementary study totalled 2,661, and 1,115 attended. Forty-eight gmina [district] loan-societies exist in the powiat. An iron railway runs across the southern border of the powiat. It comes in here from the Tarnopol powiat from Kujdaniec, goes through Stryjówka, Maksymówka (station), Bogdanówka (station) and enters into Kamionki in the Skalat powiat.  Lu(dwik) Dz(iedzicki)

 

Notes:

1) The map referenced drawn by Kummersberg is the Administrative-Karte von Galizien, Lodomerien, etc., published in 1855.

2) Ferro (now Hierro) is in the Canary Islands, long the westernmost point known to Europeans and was used for measuring longitude before Greenwich, England was selected as the standard. Ferro lies about 18 degrees west of Greenwich, so to get the correct longitude for places in Eastern Europe by modern standards, subtract 18 degrees from the “Ferro longitudes”

3) A miriametrów is 10,000 meters, so the area of the Zbaraż powiat is 854,560 square kilometers.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 511]

 

This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by Permission.


   On the northern border of powiat lie these villages (from west to east): Iwanczany, Kobyla, Kurniki, Dobrowody, Netreba, Nowiki, Załuże, Bararzyńce, Tarasówka, Krasnosielce, Kapuścińce, Zarudeczko, Siemiakówka, Sieniawa, Szyły, Lisieczyńce, Hnilice Wielkie, Koszlaki and Toki. Along the eastern border lie (from north to south): Falczyńce, Toki, Worobijówka and Prosowce. The county’s area comes to 85,456 square miriametrów20. There are 62 cadastral districts (24 in the Nowesioło county court circuit, and 38 in the Zbaraż county court circuit); there are 60 manorial areas (24 in the Nowesioło county court circuit, 36 in the Zbaraż county court circuit). In the Nowesioło county court circuit lie these villages: Bogdanówka, Dobromirka, Hnilice Małe, Hnilice Wielkie, Hołoszyńce, Hołotki, Huszczanki, Jacowce, Klebanówka, Klimkowce, Korszyłówka, Koszlaki, Koziary, Łozówka, Medyń, Nowesioło, Obodówka, Palczyńce, Pieńkowce, Prosowce, Skoryki, Terpiłówka, Toki, Worobijówka (the most populous of them: Koszlaki with 2,310 inhabitants, Toki with 2,246, and Bogdanówka with 2,030 inhabitants; the least populous is Obodówka, with 344 inhabitants). In the Zbaraż county court circuit lies the city Zbaraż and these villages: Bazarzyńce, Berezowica Mała, Czernichowce, Czumale, Dobrowody, Hłuboczek Mały, Hrycowce, Iwanczany, Iwaszkowce, Kapuścińce, Kobyla, Krasnosielce, Kretowce, Kujdańce, Kurniki, Lesieczyńce, Łubianki Niższe, Łubianki Wyższe, Netreba, Nowiki, Ochrymowce, Opryłowce, Romanowe Sioło, Roznoszyńce, Sieniachówka, Sieniawa, Stryjówka, Suchowce, Szelpaki, Szyły, Tarasówka, Wałachówka, Załuże, Zarubińce, Zarudeczko, Zarudzie and Zbaraż Stary (the most populous of them is Czernichowce with 2,320 inhabitants, the least populous Zarudeczko with 166)

 

The whole county lies in the Dniester river basin by way of its tributaries, the Gniezna (a tributary of the Seret) and the Zbrucz. The western part of the county lies in Gniezna river basin, the eastern in that of the Zbrucz. The Gniezna originates from the juncture of two streams near Zbaraż, one which flows from Krasosielce to the north, and the other from Łubianki to the east. The stream formed by the juncture creates a pond in Bazarzyńce, and flowing from the pond proceeds to Zbaraż, turns south at Załużek and rushes through Zbaraż Stary, Czernichów and Ochrymowce to Czernilów Mazowiecki (in Tarnopol county). Within Zbaraż county the Gniezna receives small streams on its left bank, for example the stream Kubanie (in Czernichów) and a second, more significant one in Ochrymowce (coming from Kretowce). The stream Rudka, a left-side tributary of the Gniezna, also originates at the county’s border. The Hnizdeczna, a right-side tributary of the Gniezna, originates in the northwestern part of the county. It is formed at Kurniki from two streams, the Berezowski and the Kobylecki, and flows southeast through Dobrowody, Czumale, Opryłowce and along the borders of Dubowce and Iwaszkowce to Stechnikowce (in Tarnopol county). The Zbrucz flows along the county’s eastern border. Within the county various small streams flow into it from the right, the most significant of which is the Walczek (in its lower course called Młyński). The Samiec or Samec also heads toward the Zbrucz from the right bank.

 

In 1890, there were in this county 10,996 houses, 66,722 occupants, that is, 4,067 houses and 24,626 inhabitants in the Nowesioło county court circuit, and 6,929 houses, 42,097 inhabitants in the Zbaraż county court circuit. By sex there were 32,933 males and 33,789 females. By religion there were 41,714 Greek Catholics, 19,080 Roman Catholics, 5,898 Jews, and 30 of other religions. By language there were 45,112 inhabitants who spoke Ruthenian, 20,249 Polish, 1,300 German. Since July of 1888 the county has comprised its own separate school district, for which the Council and district school inspector have their offices in Zbaraż. Also under this inspector is the Zaleszczyki district (which as of 1 September 1 1896 will have its own separate inspector). At present there are in the county, in addition to the 5-class schools for males and females, 5 two-class schools (Czernichowce, Koszlaki, Stryjówka, Toki and Załuże) and 29 single-class schools (Berezowica Mała, Bogdanówka, Dobromirka, Dobrowody, Hnilice Wielkie, Hniliczki, Jacowce, Klebanówka, Korszyłówka, Koziary, Krasnosielce, Knjdańce [sic, probably should be Kujdańce], Lisieczyńce, Łubianki Niżne and Wyżne, Łozówka, Medyń, Nowesioło, Ochrymowice, Palczyńce, Romanowe sioło, Sieniawa, Skoryki, Szelpaki, Szyły, Terpiłówka, Worobijówka, Zarudzie and Zbaraż Stary). In regard to language, 25 schools teach in Ruthenian, 9 in Polish, and 2 in mixed languages. During 1894/5 school year the number of children required to participate in everyday instruction (from age 6 to 12) totaled 7,906, whereas 5,130 participated; the number of children required to take part in supplementary study came to 2,661, and 1,115 participated.

 

There were 48 gmina [district] loan societies in the county. A railway line runs through the southern edge of the county. It enters from Tarnopol county from Kujdańce, goes through Stryjówka, Maksymówka (station), Bogdanówka (station) and enters Skałat county in Kamionki. 


Zbaraż Stary

Zbaraż Stary [Old], a village, Zbaraż powiat [county], just to the west from the powiat court and post office in Zbaraż. To the north lie Zarubińce and Załuże, to the east Zbaraż, to the south Czernichowce, to the west Iwaszkowce. Through the east part of the area flows the Gnieszna [river]. In her valley lie rural buildings. To the south rises the Wasylińska mountain to 407 meters. The major estate [e.g., owned by a noble] has arable farmland 273, meadows and gardens 26, pastures 22, forest 210 mórgs [1]. In the year 1890, the gmina [district] had 178 houses, 1,043 inhabitants; 19 houses, 113 inhabitants at the local manor house (995 Roman-Catholics, 135 Greek-Catholics, 26 Jews, 995 Polish,135 Ruthenians, 26 Germans). A Roman–Catholic parish in Zbaraż city, a Greek–Catholic [parish] in this place. To this parish belongs Załuże. In the village is an orthodox church under the call of Saint Michael and a single class school.  Lu(dwik) Dz(iedzicki)

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 512]

 

This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by permission.


Zdroje

Zdroje, in German Sdroyen, a village on the Matawa river in Swiecie county, served by the post office in Louisenthal and the Catholic parish church in Sliwice; there is a Catholic school in the village. It has 371 hectares (270 of farmland, 42 of meadows, 2 of forests). In 1885 there were enumerated here, along with Gajdówko (3 houses, 25 inhabitants) 41 houses, 55 hearths, and 274 inhabitants, 246 of them Catholic, 21 Protestant, and 7 Jewish. In 1773 there were 5 hearths here and 36 Catholic inhabitants. [Rev. Fr.].

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 544]

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Złoczów [now Zolochiv, Ukraine]

Złoczów, a county seat in Galicia, situated between 49 degrees 47' - 49 degrees 50’ north longitude and 42°32’- 42° 37’ east latitude from Ferro [24 degrees 54’ as measured from Greenwich]. Horodylow and Jelechowice are to the north, Zazule to the northeast, Bieniow and Strutyn to the east, Woroniaki to the south, and Jasieniowce and Chylczyce to the west. The river Złoczówka flows through the northeastern part of the area. The town and the suburbs of Glinianskie, Szlaki, Podwojcie, Lwowskie and Brodzkie lie in its valley. The valley of the Złoczówka, elevation 262 meters above sea level, is open toward the southeast and northwest and is surrounded by hills, spurs of the Woroniaki range. The highest peaks reach an elevation of 414 meters. The town, along with Zarzecze, Woroniaki, Zazule and Folwarki, comprise a cadastral district [gmina]. The major estate has 330 morgs of farmland, 119 of meadows and gardens, 83 of pastures, and 2,920 of forests; the minor estate has 4,096 morgs of farmland, 1,435 of meadows and gardens, 971 of pastures, and 477 of forests.

 

In 1890 there were 866 houses and 10,113 residents in the district (2,190 Roman Catholics, 2,826 Greek Catholics, 5,086 Jews, and 11 of other denominations; 7,254 Poles, 2,633 Ruthenians, and 199 Germans). There is a Roman Catholic parish in the town, belonging to Złoczów deanery of Lwow archdiocese. The parish was founded in 1624 by Jakub Sobieski, the starosta of Krasnystaw. The following villages belonged to it: Bieniow, Boniszyn, Chylczyce, Folwarki, Horodylow, Jasieniowce, Jelechowice, Iwaczow, Kniaze, Luka, Podlipce, Pluhow, Strutyn, Troscianiec, Woroniaki, Zalesie, Zarwanica, Zarzecze, and Zazule. The present parish church, of the Assumption of Our Lady, consecrated in 1839, used to belong to the Piarists. After the order was disbanded in 1788, the monastery buildings were seized as property of the state, and the church was turned into a warehouse. When the former parish church was turned into a Greek Catholic church, the parish was moved to the former Piarist church. The bell was moved from the old church to the new one and placed in the bell tower; a memorial to the Sobieskis, the bell had been cast in 1693 in Gdansk and was paid for by King Jan III Sobieski (see Sokalski, Geographical-Statistical Sketch of the Złoczów School District, p. 207). The following parishes belong to the Złoczów Latin-rite deanery: Bialykamien, Gologory, Jezierna, Pomorzany, Sassow, Zborow, and the Olejow chaplaincy.

 

There is also a Greek Catholic parish church in the town, of Złoczów deanery; it was also endowed by the Sobieski family. Belonging to it are Folwarki, Woroniaki, Zarzecze and Zazule. Up until 1838, the present Church of the Resurrection, built in the Renaissance style, was the Latin-rite parish church; its construction was begun in 1604 by Marek Sobieski, the voivode of Lublin and grandfather of Jan III. When, at the request of the Greek Catholic inhabitants of Złoczów, who had only the small church of St. Mikolaj, the Austrian government turned over the dilapidated former Piarist church to them, there was a voluntary exchange between the parishioners of the two rites. The Latin-rite parish church was given to the Greek Catholics to be their church, and the old Piarist church was given a new roof, renovated, and turned into the new Roman Catholic parish. The Greek Catholic Church of St. Mikolaj [Nicholas] is probably one of the oldest buildings in Złoczów (see Sokalski, loc. cit, p. 209). These parishes belong to the Greek Catholic deanery of Złoczów: Belzec, Bobutyn, Bobszczany, Hodow, Jasieniowce, Kalne, Kniaze, Koropiec, Lackie Wielkie, Machnowce, Plesniany, Pluhow, Poczapy, Podlipce, Pomorzany, Remizowce, Rozhadow, Rykow, Scianka, Skwarzawa, Slawna, Snowicz, Strutyn, Troscianie Maly, Urlow, Zukow, and Zulice. Złoczów also has a Basilian monastery, founded by Jan Sobieski in 1665. It is located in the suburb of Lwowskie. The small brick church with a zinc roof was built not long ago to replace a small wooden one. (Szematyzm czyna sw. Wasylia Welykoho w Halyczyni, [Inventory of the Order of St. Vasyli the Great in Galicia], Lwow, 1867, p. 15).

 

Złoczów is the seat of the starosta's jurisdiction and site of the district, county, and municipal delegate courts of law; the main tax office; postal and telegraph offices; the district education council; the county council; the police station, a unit of the Treasury guard, the command of the 80th Infantry Regiment and of the defense command of the military police, the valuation committee, and the district office. As regards educational institutions, Złoczów has a gimnazjum [high school] founded in 1873 by the district as a lower gimnazjum and elevated to a higher one in 1881. On September 1, 1892, the school came under government funding. Courses are conducted in Polish. In 1896, 293 pupils attended the school.

 

Additionally, there is a 6-class boys' school, a 5-class girls' school, and a Jewish elementary school funded by Baron Hirsch. All the schools conduct courses in Polish. The boys' school dates back to 1789. It began as a 3-class school with one teacher in what had been a monastery before the Reformation. It was established by the district office in Złoczów, and its first patron was Prince Radziwill was the first patron, followed by Princess Sapiezyna. In 1790, when the district administration office was moved from Brody to Złoczów, the school was transformed into the chief Royal and Imperial school of the district, and in 1800 it was moved to a separate structure built for that purpose. Until 1849 classes were held in German, but after that Polish was used, and the study of the Ruthenian language was compulsory. In 1865 the school became the property of the local district council.

 

The girls’ school has existed since 1853 and is presently housed in a building that used to belong to the Piarists.

 

Among other facilities worth noting, there is the general hospital founded in 1847; the invalids' shelter set up in 1663 by Jan Sobieski for 12 patients; 3 credit institutions; a mutual credit society for business and trade; branches of various societies, namely pedagogical, Rodzina, agricultural circles, and Proswita. Trade and industry are not very well developed. At one time the local forests provided an abundance of wood, and the Złoczów ponds provided fish. Today, there is no wood for export, and the ponds have been replaced with fields and meadows. Since 1882, Zuckerhandel and son have been running a printing house, which publishes, among other things, books for children and youth.

 

Złoczów existed as a village as early as the first half of the 15th century. In a document dated 23 August 1442, Wladyslaw Warnenczyk bequeathed 200 grzywnas to Jerzy Strumilo of Dymoszyn for the village of Złoczów (A. G. i Z., vol. 7, p. 83). In 1443 the King secured for Michal of Buczacz 100 grzywnas for the royal village of Złoczów in the district of Lwow (Kod. dypl. pol., vol. I, page 327). The village belonged to the Oleski estate, which Wladyslaw Warnenczyk gave to Jan of Sienna. On 8 April 1469 in Lwow the district judge Piotr z Branic, along with subaltern judge Jan z Wysokiego, in response to the charge of Lwow prosecutor Mikolaj Grzymala, took from Katarzyna, wife of Andrzej of Sienna, and Elzbieta, full sisters from Gologory, the right to collect duties in the village of Złoczów (loc. cit., vol. 6, p. 127). In Wilno on 17 June 1522 Zygmunt I ordered Stanislaw of Chodziecz, marshal and starosta of Lwow, to occupy the estate of the excommunicated heir to Złoczów, Stanislaw Malogoski (Arch. krajowe we Lwowie, C., vol. 12, p. 595).

 

In 1523, Zygmunt I, due to the efforts of Stanislaw Sieninski, the lord of Złoczów at that time, bestowed a municipal charter under Magdeburg law upon the settlement (the original charter is in the Złoczów town hall). In a document issued on 3 August 1528, Bernard, Archibishop of Lwow, ordered the pastors of Gologory, Złoczów and Pomarzany to call upon Stanislaw Sienienski of Złoczów to banish from his house Dorota of Sandomierz, with whom he was living in adultery. If he did not comply within 6 days he was to be excommunicated (loc. cit., C., vol. 13, p. 840). On 10 September 1528 in Dunajow the same archbishop ordered the same pastors to have Stanislaw Złoczówski excommunicated from their parishes. On 10 October 1428 he ordered them to expel him again, and again on 2 November. In a document dated 15 December 1530 the same archbishop instructed the same pastors to remind Stanislaw Złoczówski (Sienienski) to pay the prescribed levy within a week, or else he would be excommunicated (loc. cit., p. 844). In 1532 Stanislaw Sieninski sold the town of Złoczów with its stronghold (cum fortalitio) and several villages to Jedrzej Gorka, the castellan of Poznan (Balinski, Star. Polska, Vol. II, page 590). By a charter dated 1537 Jedrzej Gorka exempted the town of Złoczów from various levies in view of the impoverishment of the inhabitants due to repeated attacks of the enemy (the original document is in the Złoczów town hall).

 

The Gorka family fortified the castle, improved the town's defenses, and brought many Armenians in to settle there, for whom Lukasz z Gorki, the voivode of Łęczyca, acquired funds from Zygmunt August for a church. It was built where the courthouse stands today. The Armenians carried on a sizable trade in white sturgeon and pork fat, and planted large orchards amid the forests (Sokalski, loc. cit., page 213). In 1553, at the request of Lukasz, the starosta of Busk, and Jedrzej and Stanislaw Gorka, lords of the town, Zygmunt August established a fair on the feast of the Three Kings (Balinski, loc. cit.).

 

Marek Sobieski, the voivode of Lublin and grandfather of King Jan Sobieski, obtained the Złoczów estates from the Gorka family. He began his administration of the newly acquired estate by issuing a separate charter, written at the castle of Złoczów in 1599, by which he confirmed all grants and exemptions given the city by his predecessors (the original document is in the town hall). Marek's son Jakub, upon taking over the estate, added greatly to its improvement. He confirmed his father's 1599 charter, finished construction on the church (which had already begun) in 1604, and endowed the Latin-rite parish in 1624. That same year his first wife Maryanna, princess Wisnowiecka, died in Złoczów. He married again, to Teofila nee Danilowicz, and resided sometimes at the Złoczów castle, where his first son Marek came into the world, as did as his two daughters later, Zofia and Katarzyna. In 1634 Jakub Sobieski transformed the Złoczów castle into a small citadel with four stone bastions. He also probably established and endowed the monastery of the Order of the Reformation, the buildings of which house the army today. The Złoczów estate then came into the hands of Jan Sobieski, who frequently stayed there and founded camps there as well; in his numerous charters (preserved in the town hall) he showed his concern for the good of the town. First and foremost he confirmed the charter his grandfather had issued in 1599.

 

In 1672, after having captured Kamieniec, the Turks, along with the Khan and Cossacks, set off for Lwow, capturing and burning Złoczów on the way. Immediately after his election in 1674, Jan III was encamped at Złoczów, and after holding a council of war, he decided to postpone his coronation and set off for Ukraine. In 1675, 10,000 Tartars, under the command of Adzigirej, approached Złoczów, where the Ruthenian voivode Stanislaw Jablonowski, with a small handful of men, forced the enemy to retreat. That same year, in a charter issued at the Złoczów castle on 15 August, the king confirmed all the liberties granted the city by Wladyslaw IV in 1633 and the Magdeburg town charter granted by Zygmunt I. At that time the castle fortifications were strengthened and the town's walls improved, and it served as a place for keeping Turkish and Tartar prisoners of war. In 1682, with the King’s permission, work began on the construction of the Greek Catholic Church of the Resurrection, of which not a trace remains today. In 1691 a fire destroyed the whole town.

 

After the death of Jan III, the king's son, Jakub, lived for a while in Złoczów. He, too, confirmed the charters given by the king, increased the grants to the Armenian Church and shelter for the poor, and circa 1730 founded the Pijarist College. After his death in 1737, the remaining properties were passed on to his daughter, Maria Karolina de Bouillon. She in turn sold everything (in the form of a donation) to Prince Michal Kazimierz Radziwill, the grandson of Katarzyna Sobieska, Jan´s sister. When he took over the estate in 1744, he confirmed all previous grants from the time of the Gorkas in a charter issued in Krzemieniec. But all the hereditary property which Karol Radziwill owned as of 1772 was so heavily in debt that bankruptcy was unavoidable. It forced the Radziwills out in 1789; Złoczów came under the ownership of Princess Sapieha.

 

After the Austrian army occupied Złoczów in 1772, the municipal charter under terms of Magdeburg law ceased to be valid. The monastery of the Order of the Reformation and the College of the Piarists (where Onufry Kopczynski taught from 1760 on) were abolished, and the monastery churches were turned into warehouses. The town fell into total disrepair. A fire in 1797 completed the devastation. It was not until 1848 that the town began to rise from the ashes. Lukasz Komarnicki, appellate councilor in Lwow, bought Złoczów in 1802, and it remained in the Komanicki family until 1868 (Sokalski, loc. cit., page 213 and following). Komarnicki was a nobleman of the proud and rebellious type. After having repaired the castle to some extent, he had a marble plaque placed on one of the outer walls with the inscription "Joannes III rex fundavit. Comes Komarnicki restauravit" [King Jan III founded it. Count Komarnicki restored it]. The castle came to be owned by Jews. In 1873, when the walls were beginning to be torn down, president Pozniak convinced the government to let him restore it; he bought the property, renovated it and turned it into a prison and site of offices of courts of law.

 

The ancient castle has been preserved to this day more or less in its entirety. It is located in the southeastern part of the city, on a sizable elevation. In form it is an elongated quadrilateral, surrounded by high ramparts, and the escarpment exterior is faced with ashlar. A 5-sided ashlar-faced bastion projects from each corner, at the pinnacle of which there is a 6-sided lookout tower. On each is a stone plate with a shield divided into four fields, in which appear the coats of arms Janina, Gozdawa, Rawicz, and Herburt, and on the sides are the letters J.S.K.K.S.K., which stand for "Jakub Sobieski, krajczy koronny, starosta krasnostawski" [Jakub Sobieski, Crown Trencher-Knight, Starosta of Krasnystaw]. The bastions and rampart walls connecting them are surrounded by a deep ditch, for the most part still visible today. The entrance gate is on the north side, in a two-story building, between the two bastions on that side. It is architecturally bordered, with a barrel-like cupola, with vestiges of a drawbridge. The inscription "Sub tuum presidium" [under your protection] appears on the lintel. Within a fairly sizable courtyard, at the western rampart wall, there is a one-story building, long, narrow, made of brick, used formerly for living quarters. Today it is a prison. Beside it to the south is an 8-sided building with the Janina coat of arms, apparently either the chapel or castle arsenal. There are underground prison cells in the ramparts. Today, the castle is the property of the government and houses the court and prisons (Czolowski, "Dawne zamki i twierdze na Rusi halickiej" in Teka konsweratorska, Lwow, 1892, pages 127 and 128).

 

Literature and drawings, besides those cited in the article: Rozmaitosci (Lwow, 1827, page 418; 1830, page 411). -- Miscellen (Lemberg, 1823, No. 23). -- Galicya w obrazach (Lwow, ed. Piller, fascicle 7). Kalendarz Stanislawowski, 1848. -- Przyjaciel ludu, 1844 (vol. I, page 132). -- Tygodnik ilustr. (from 1862, vol. VI, page 237, and from 1871, No. 199). -- Literaturnyi sbornik (Lwow, 1870, page 31). -- Collection of the drawings of Pawlikowski (No. 5625-2628).

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p.628-631]

 

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska and edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Złoczów powiat

Złoczów county (in Kummersberg´s Atlas on pages 22, 23, 32, and 33; general staff Z. 5, C. 31, 32, Z. 6, C. 31, 32, 33, Z. 7, C. 31, 32, 33) lies between latitude 49° 35’ and 50° north and between longitude 42° 10’ and 43° 51’ east (as measured from Ferro). Kamionka Strumilowa county lies to the northwest; to the northeast is Brody county; to the east Tarnopol county; to the south Tarnopol and Brzezany counties; and to the west Przemyslany county. Złoczów is situated at the center of this area. The furthest points from Złoczów as the crow flies are the southeastern edge of Jezierna, 43 km. to the southeast; the northwestern edge of Kutkow, 31km. to the northwest; the northern edge of Juszkowie, 22km. to the north; and the southern edge of Pomorzany, 23 km. to the south. The entire county covers an area of 1,850.72 square km. There are 140 administrative gminas (20 in the Zborow county court district, 68 in the Złoczów county court district) There are 131 manorial estates (18 in the Olesko court district, 51 in the Zborow district, and 62 in the Złoczów district).

 

There are two towns in Olesko county, Bialykamien and Olesko, and the following villages: Bolozynow, Buzek, Chwalow, Czeremosznia, Czyszki, Hucisko, Jaskowice, Katy, Ozydow, Podhorce, Podlesie, Przewloczna, Rozwaz, Sobolowka, Sokolowka, Usznia, Zahorce and Zakomarze. In the Zborow county court district are the towns Jezierna, Pomorzany and Zborow, and the following villages: Bereniowce, Bialkowce, Bialoglowy, Bialokiernica, Bogdanowka, Bobutyn, Bubszczany, Bzowica, Cecowa, Danilowce, Harbuzow, Hodow, Hukalowce, Iwaczow, Jackowce, Jarczowce, Jaroslawice, Jezierzanka, Kabarowce, Kalne, Korszylow, Kudobince, Kudynowce, Lopuszany, Machowce, Manajow, Meteniow, Mlynowce, Monilowka, Mszana, Nesterowce, Neterpince, Nuszcze, Olejow, Ostaszowce, Perepilniki, Plesniany, Podhajczyki, Presowce, Rozhadow, Serwery, Slawna, Torkow, Trawotloki, Tustoglowy, Urlow, Wolczkowce Zabin and Zarudzie. In the Złoczów county court district is the city of Złoczów, the towns of Gologory and Sassow, and the following villages: Baluczyn, Belzec, Bezbrody, Bieniow, Boniszyn, Bortkow, Bronislawowka, Chilczyce, Chmielowa, Czyzow, Firlejowka, Folwarki, Gologorki, Horodylow, Huta Werchobuzka, Jasionowce, Jelechowice, Kniaze, Koltow, Kondratow, Koropiec, Krasne, Krasnosielce, Kropiwna, Krukow, Kutkorz, Lackie Male, Lackie Wielkie, Luka, Majdan Gologorski, Mitulin, Nowosiolki, Olszanica, Olszanka Mala, Opaki, Ostrowczyk Polny, Pietrycze, Pluhow, Pobocz, Poczapy, Podlipce, Remizowce, Ruda Koltowska, Rykow, Scianka, Sknilow, Skwarzawa, Snowicz, Stronibaby, Strutyn, Szpiklosy, Tredowacz, Troscianiec Maly, Uciszkow, Uhorce, Werchobuz, Wicyn, Woroniaki, Zalesie, Zarwanica, Zarzecze, Zaszkow, Zazule, Zukow and Zulice.

 

The county occupies part of the Bug valley, the source of the Styr, the eastern part of the Gologory and Woroniaki mountains, including the latter’s extended branches, and the northern part of the Podolia elevation. The northwestern part of the county and the northern edge are lowland. The central area up to Pluhow and the northeastern part from Złoczów to Podhorce and Olesko are mountainous. The southern and southeastern parts are elevated. The varied nature of the landscape corresponds to that of the soil, climate, flora and the inhabitants. The Bug valley takes up almost one quarter of the area, stretching into the northwestern part of the county, to the northern slopes of the Gologory and Woroniaki mountains, where it abruptly ends. Between Podlesie and Zakomarze, the Bug and Styr valleys merge to make up the northern edge of the county. The Bug valley is almost completely flat, inclining slightly to the north. The highest point, 260 to 270 m., is at the northern slopes of the Woroniaki range, and the lowest, 227 m. above sea level, is near Uciszkow. To the east, this flatland merges with two sizable valleys: that of Złoczów and the upper Bug. The Gologory mountains begin in the county near the village of Mitulin, run eastwards alongside the villages of Nowosiolki, Tredowacz, Gologorki and Gologory. There they take a more northerly path and run by the village of Scianki, then eastwards to Lackie. Thereafter they go by the name Woroniaki. To the north, they drop steeply, to the south they transform into the rather insignificant hills of the Podolskie Upland gradually disappearing and giving place to lofty plains. The highest peak, Wapieniarka, 471 m., lies to the south of Nowosiolki. Lysa Gora, west of Lackie, is 458 m.; and Hracz, south of Majdan Gologorski, is 430 m. The Woroniaki wind eastward from Lackie, reaching heights between 325 and 420 m. near Złoczów, and then run southeast until they reach Pluhow. From this main range, divided by the Złoczów valley, the Woroniaki stretch northwards to Podhorce and Olesko providing the whole northeastern part of the county with innumerable streams and rivers. These streams, broken up by rough terrain, stretch as far west as Bialykamien, Podlesie and Olesko, where they end in hills reaching elevations of up to 370 m. The highest peak in the main range, St. John, 407 m. high, lies east of Lackie Male. The village Woroniaki lies at an altitude between 375 m. and 414 m.; the village Zalasy lies south of Woroniaki, at 420 m., and Namostkach is at 440 m. The northern edge of the Podolskie Upland makes up part of the southern and southeastern part of the county. The land to the west belongs to the so-called Opole region, which is characterized by hilly expanses with moderate depressions. East of the Opole region, an undulating, open, dry, cool and almost woodless section of the Podolskie Upland begins. This whole area lies at an altitude of more than 350 m., in some places even above 400 m., and is traversed by many waterfalls and deep canyons.

 

The waterways of the country belong to two catchment areas, that of the Baltic and that of the Black Sea. They are divided by the main water line, which follows the Gologory and Woroniaki range and their northern streams. The Baltic slope receives waters from the northern part of the county, except those from the northeast edges around Ozydow, Olesko and Podhorce. The waters of the Baltic slope are collected and conducted by the Bug river (the main tributary of the Wisla), while those of the Black Sea slope are collected and conducted by the Zlota Lipa, the Strypa, and over a small area the Seret (primary left-bank tributaries of the Dniester) and the Styr (a tributary of the Pripet, which flows into the Dniepr). The basin of the Bug river covers almost the whole northern part of the country. The Bug’s source lies in the wooded valley between Werchobuz, Opaki, Kruhow and Koltow. The most powerful of the springs in that area is in Werchobuz, and it is here that the Bug begins. In the marshy region between Werchobuz and Kruhow two other streams arise, na Stawisku and Brodek na Filarowem, which strengthen the Bug in Koltow, creating the so-called “Buzek Kruhowski” [Kruhow Little Bug]. A third stream, the so-called “Buzek Opacki” [Opaki Little Bug] emerges in the northwestern part of the village of Opaki. All three meet in Koltow and together flow northwest through Buda Kotowska, Sassow, Usznia, Czermosznia, Bialykamien and Buzek. Below Buzek the Bug takes a more northwesterly direction and passes through Rozwaz, Sobolowka, Pietrycze, Uciszkow and Stronibaby, at which point it leaves the county, taking a northerly direction towards Busk. Of the more significant tributaries we can mention the Buzek Oleski (a right-bak tributary), the Złoczówek (left-bank), and the Gologorka and Peltew (left-bank).

 

The tributaries of the Strypa are in the southern and southeastern parts of the county. The Strypa arises from several branches whose sources lie in the southern slopes of the Woroniaki Mountains and the northern part of the Podolian Elevation. The middle branch, the so-called “Glowna Strypa,” emerges in the village of Iwaczow; the “Mala Strypa” in the village of “Rykow”; the third branch, a left tributary of the Glowna Strypa, in Wolczkowce; and the fourth, also a left tributary of the Glowna Strypa, in Manilowce. These branches from the village of Pohrebce in one course, as the Strypa, southwards through Olszanka and Cecowa. Below these villages the Strypa enters Brzezany county. Its main tributaries in Złoczów county are the Hrebelka and Wosuszka.

 

The Seret basin is located in the southeastern part of the county, between the sources of the Bug and Strypa. Here we find the following villages: Nuszcze, Perepelniki, Harbuzow, Manajow, Hukalowce, Lopuszany, Olejow, Bialokiernica, Bialoglowy, Neterpince and Huta Werchobuska. The Seret is made up of three branches. The main one emerges in Majdan, southeast of Podhorce; the sources of the second are in Huta Werchobuska; and the sources of the third are in Nuszcz. They merge in Ratyszcz, in Brody county. Of the Seret’s most important tributaries, the Lopuszanka has its source in Lopuszany, in Złoczów county.

 

The Zlota Lipa basin covers the southwest part of the county. This river consists of two branches, which have their sources in Złoczów county. The right branch emerges in Majdan Gologorski, the left in Szpiklosy. Both then merge in Brzezany county. The Zgnila Lipa, with its source in Zukow, in Złoczów county, flows into the right branch; the Machnowka, with its source in Machnowce, and the Zwarycz in Hodow enters the left one. The Styr basin covers the northeastern edge of the county and includes the villages of Chwalow, Juskowice, Olesko, Czyszki, Katy, Sokolowka, Labacz, Bolozynow and Przewloczna. (The preceding sketch of orographic and hydrographic composition is based on Sokalski’s Rys geograficzno-statystyczny Złoczówskiego okregu szkolnego, pp. 6-36).

 

The county’s land is composed of of 95,935 hectares of farmland, 2,9861 of meadows and gardens, 11,834 of pastureland, and 36,007 of forests. According to 1880 statistics there were in this county 22,205 horses, 50,350 head of cattle, 13,307 sheep, 18,223 pigs, and around 17,000 beehives. In 1890 there were 23,136 houses and 148,808 inhabitants, as follows: 4,412 houses and 26,647 inhabitants in the of Olesko county court district; 7,838 houses and 49,539 inhabitants in the Zborow court district; and 10,886 houses and 72,622 inhabitants in the Złoczów court district. By gender there were 74,118 men and 74,690. By denomination there were 97,957 Greek Orthodox, 29,460 Roman Catholics, 20,947 Jews, and 444 other. Ruthenian was spoken by 96,799 people; Polish by 5,107; German by 721; and other languages by 8.

 

On 1 July 1888 the county a separate county school district was formed, whose school board and inspectors had their headquarters in Złoczów. Apart from the schools mentioned in the description of Złoczów, there were 119 community schools as of the 1895 school year. In 25 of them courses were given in Polish, in 90 courses were given in Ruthenian; in 1 courses were given in German, and in 3 courses were given in Polish-Ruthenian. There were 14 two-class schools and 105 one-class schools. The number of children subject to compulsory daily education was 17,926 (9,150 boys and 8,776 girls), with supplementary education for 4,605 children (2,411 boys and 2,194 girls). 11,676 children took part in daily education program and 2,418 in the supplementary one. There were 98 male teachers (81 with professional qualifications, 12 with the secondary school certificate and 5 without qualifications) and 38 female teachers (24 with professional qualifications, 5 with the secondary school certificate and 9 without qualifications).

 

There were 93 county lending institutions. The Karol Ludwig railroad enters the county from the west, from Przemyslany county. The first station is in the village of Krasne. Here it divides into two lines: one runs through the northern part of the county in a northeasterly direction to Brody county toward the towns of Brody and Radziwillow. The second runs through the middle of the county in a southeasterly direction through Złoczów and Zborow to Tarnopol county and the towns of Tarnopol and Podwoloczyski. There are highways running west from Złoczów to Lwow, northeast to Brody, and southeast to Tarnopol. From the latter there are further roads leading south to Brzezany and northeast to Zalozce.

 

In 1879, Dr. Rehman studied the region's flora and the results of these studies can be found in Sprawozdanie komisyi fizyograficznej (volume IX). In 1885 Br. Sokalski published Rys geograficzno-statystyczny zloczewskiego okregu szkolnego wraz z dokladnym opisem miejscowosci poszczegolnych powiatow zloczewskiego i brodzkiego.[Lu{dwik} Dz{iedzicki}].

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p.631-633]

 

This translation, by Jolanta Jurasinska and William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Złotowo

1) Złotowo, named in documents from the year 1370 Vulutovum, Welatowo, Zlothaue, in the XV century known as Majus Zlothkowo, in 1491 as Slothowo, in the XVIII century as Flotho, Flatow and in German as Flatow. It is a county town in western Prussia lying 53° 21’ latitude and 34° 43’ east longitude. 9 miles west of Bydgoszcz and 5 miles south of Chojnic. It has a rail station on the eastern line between Tczew and Pila. It is picturesquely situated between three lakes, one of which is called Baba (old woman). The river Glumia, a tributary of the Glda, meanders through these lakes. The soil is sandy and, in places, clayish. The main occupations are farming, small businesses and trades, especially coopering. There is a Landrat, county savings bank, recruitment and cadastre offices, county court, post and 2nd. class telegraph office, a 7-class school (in 1887 had 344 pupils) and a 5-class public school (in 1887 had 345 pupils). The town and surrounds cover 2500 hectares (1772 agricultural, 264 meadow, 10 forest).

In 1885 there were 405 houses, 798 homes, 3880 people, 1389 Catholics, 2046 Protestants and 445 Jews. In 1892 it was noted that 307 families kept livestock, namely: 249 horses, 577 heads of cattle, 1295 sheep, 631 pigs, 150 goats and 115 bee-hives.

We do not have detailed information about the beginnings of Zlotow. Excavated box coffins and urns show that the area had been settled for a very long, long time.

The city is first mentioned in 1370. A fortified castle existed here much earlier. It stood by the lake, on a man-made hill, which is today covered by oak trees. At the beginning of XVII century the Potulicki family built a new castle on the island, not far from the Catholic church. In 1657, the Swedes captured it and the occasion is depicted and described in Puffendorf’s work (IV, 294) “Flatow, Pommerelliae arx, difficillimi accessus, 400 militum praesidiomunita, post 24 horarum obsidionem a Serenissimo Rege Sueciae expugnatur 28 Jun. 1657. The present day castle is from more recent times. The original town charter has completely vanished but it is known that the town could hold markets as far back as 1532. The first known charter of 44 “wloka” (measure of land) and more, based on German law, was bestowed on the town by Karol Grudzinski in 1665. The rental fee for these lands and two hens were due on St. Martin’s Day. The townspeople also had to do their share of duty-work on the land. Those without land had to pay 12 grosz for their property. The manor collected three pennies from the stalls belonging to drapers, butchers, bakers and merchants. Every citizen had the right to brew 8 bushels of barley annually (Kalisz measure) but the manor received half a bucket. Whoever brewed more, had the malt confiscated. Apart from that, the town received a large tract on the road to Swieto and stretching up to lake Losionki. The mayor and council received the low-lying lands between the lakes Baba and Babiczyn. The town received its second charter, reinforcing all previous laws, from Augustyn Dzialynski, the Nakiel starost in 1736. In 1619, Jan Potulicki was the owner of Złotowo followed by Zygmunt Grudzinski in 1642 and then by Andrzej Karol Grudzinski (owner of Falmierowo) in 1650. In 1688, Maciej Dzialynski owned the town and in 1783, the owner was von Fahrenheid, an army advisor. Then came Komierowski in 1805. From 1820 onwards, the town became part of the crown property of the Prussian kings in the following order: Fryderyk Wilhelm III, Wilhelm I, Prince Karol and presently Prince Leopold, son of Prince Fryderyk Karol.

Around 1674, almost the whole town was gutted by fire so that a mere 5 houses remained. On 29 -30 April 1801, another fire visited the town and burned down 26 houses and again on 01 October, when 69 more were destroyed. The town suffered severe losses in the years 1802, 1803 and 1804. The government granted monies for the rebuilding of homes but insisted the roofs be tiled.

In 1766, the town had a population of 890; 411 Catholics and 473 non-Catholics.

In 1783, there were 291 houses and 1597 inhabitants (around 600 Protestants, 300 Catholics, 714 Jews). There were 31 empty homes.

In 1804, there were 1814 people, 1058 Christians, 756 Jews and 162 homes.

In 1826, 1932 people and 206 homes.

In 1853, 2772 people (742 Catholics, 1421 Protestants, 609 Jews)

In 1861, 3154 people (927 Catholics, 1648 Protestants, 579 Jews)

In 1864, 3172 people (993 Catholics, 1631 Protestants, 535 Jews, 11 non-conformists).

The Hube family, which produced a number of well-known and talented lawyers, came from Złotowo. Father Jozef Hube, a member of the Community of the Resurrection recently died in Rome.

No one knows when the parish church was founded. In 1619, Jan Potulicki from Potulic grants the church 6 old and 3 new wloka, which goes to show that the parish must have been in existence longer. During the second Swedish war in 1657, the church was razed to the ground. It was not until 1664 that Andrzej Grudzinski had the present day church built in brick. This Church of the Assumption of Our Lady was consecrated in 1669. The patronage rights were held by the heir to the royal estate. The priest’s lands covered 695.10 morgs. The sacristy is adjacent to the presbytery and two chapels with cupolas adjoin the elongated aisle. A steeple adorns the roof. Apparently, there used to be a brick tower in front of the church but it was dismantled. Today, bells hang in the wooden bell tower. There are 5 altars. Worth mentioning, is the painting depicting the coronation of Our Lady in the main altar. The paintings depicting the Way of the Cross were presented in 1885 for 1400 marks. Amongst some of the relics preserved is a crucifix embossed with mother-of-pearl and a richly embroidered ornate. The embroidered coat of arms and initials M.G.W.P.S. indicate that this was a gift from Maria Grudzinska nee Swiecicka, wife of the Posen voivode and Sredz starosta. In the crypts of the Zlotow church lie the remains of members of well-known Wielkopolska (a region of Poland) dynasties: Potulicki, Grudzinski and Dzialynski

Next to the church there has been a hospice housing 5 poor people and the Brotherhood of Sobriety, since 1859.

Outside the town, stands the timber church of St. Roch, which is under the town’s patronage. It probably dates back to last century. The parish (Kamienski deanery) is composed of the following: Złotowo, Swirte, Stawnica, Blekwit, Kielpin, Klukowo, Dzierzazno, Smierdowo, Kujan, Nowiny and Wasosz. In 1866, there were 2748 parishioners and 3382 in 1895. The Protestant parish has been in existence since 1642. During the pest many people died and, in order to repopulate the area, Protestants from Lobzenica were resettled here. The heir in 1642, Zygmunt Grudyinski, gave his permission for the erection of the Protestant church. However, the Lutherans probably dismantled it in 1721 and so many moved to Pomerania. At the request of the Lutheran population, King Fryderyk II reinstated the church, in 1773 and in 1776 the heir Dzialynski also gave his permission. A new church was built in 1779 and was followed by a brick-built one in 1830. The Jewish parish was granted its first privilege by the Archibishop of Gniezno in 1690 and the second by Augustyn Dzialynski, the Nakiel starosta, in 1736.

2). Złotowo: German Zlottowo, Goldbach´s document mentioning the village on the Sedala in Lubaw County, by Lubaw where there is a parish church, post office, Catholic school and hospice. The village covers an area of 1283 hectares (947 farmland, 19 meadow). In 1885, there were 87 houses, 724 homes, 706 Catholics and 18 Protestants. According to Strzeszy´s inspection report of 1667- 72 „ villa ditions episcopalism a. 1350 locata.” The Church of St. Barbara was the parish church up until 1641. Bishop Dzialynski incorporated it into Lubawa. The bell tower stands alone and was built in 1876. Mass is celebrated here once a month. The painting in the main altar represents the Transfiguration. On the west side there is the altar of St. Katarzyna with the wonderful picture, dating back to 1618, portraying Our Lady with the Christ-Child and St. Anna. During renovation work in 1891, coal stone dating back to 1725 was found. Each year, on 06 August, a large fair takes place and is visited by many. The Chelmin bishop’s inventory from 1731 mentions “Description of the village Złotowo belonging to the Tynwalski estate: 1). Wawrzeniec Osman, a churl, shack old and bad, with roof, barns and stable - everything useless. 2). Grask, a churl, new shack with new roof, shed tumbling, old, bad, barn also no good, with roof. 3). Blazej, a churl, old shack, not very good, with roof, shed, new barn. 4). Graumann, a churl, shed, shack all buildings in disrepair but with roofs. 5). Handzel, a churl, old shack, bad roof, everything is good for nothing. 6). Fafa, a churl, shack old, bad state of repair. One shed old and bad the other tumbling, barn passable. 7). Skepiec, a churl, shack old, bad condition, with roof. Shed and barn old and no good. Vassals for years. Stanislaw Szynawa and and Jakub Taszenski, the village administrators are for permanent rights and owned buildings. The innkeeper is for permanent rights and has built his own property. (page 66 Manuscript in Peplin) In 1789, there were 45 homes here. In 1868, there were 667 people. In 1882 a massive fire destroyed 13 buildings ( Die Stadt Loebau by Liek, 1892 page 583).

3). Złotowo, German Flathe, in documents Zlotkowo, Goldau, Flatow, Flatte. A village in Walecki County. Has a post office. Tuezno covers 471 hectares (365 farmland, 18 meadows, 59 forest). In 1885, there were 19 houses, 29 homes, 137 people, 119 Catholics, 18 Protestants. In 1736 there was one free village administrator working two gardens. 7 gardens were rented out, 8 were free and there was a patch of forest. The buildings were in a miserable state (Gesch. Des Dt. Croner Kreises by Schmitt page 238. In Goldbeck´s 1789 Topography, Złotowo is mentioned as the property of the nobility family, Mosinski, and having a water mill and 12 homes. (page 56)

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p.646-647]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.


Złotowo powiat

In the Kwidzin regency, situated between 53° 13´ and 53° 26´ latitude north and between 34°27 and 35° 24´ longitude east. To the north it borders with Czluchow and Chojnic County, to the east with the Tuchol, Bydgoszcz and Wyrzysk Counties and to the west with Walecki and Szczecin Counties. These boundaries have a historical justification. The northern boundary, where the Kamionka flows, divided Poland from the Teutonic lands up until 1466 and thereafter separated Wielkopolska from Royal Prussia. The southern boundary, with small exceptions, follows the boundary, which divided Prussia from the Duchy of Warsaw from 1808 onwards. The eastern boundary divided the Kwidzin and Bydgoszcz regencies and the western boundary divided the Posen and Gniezno diocese and, today, the Posen and Chelm diocese. The county covers an area of 27.5 square miles or 152579 hectares of which 94216 is farmland, 10724 meadow, 28135 forest. The net income from one hectare farmland is 7.44 marks, from meadow 7.05 marks and from forest 2.35 marks. 11670 hectares of this belongs to the town (8100 farmland, 906 meadow, 136 forest), 78958 hectares to the village communes (57738 farmland, 5532 meadow, 4728 forest) and 61951 hectares to larger estates (28378 farmland, 4286 meadow, 23271 forest). The river Glda, which forms the county’s western boundary, is one of the more important ones. Its tributary, the Dobrzynka, forms the northern boundary. The Lobzonka runs through the middle of the county and the Kamionka and Sepolna through the eastern part. Schmitt’s topography enumerates 73 lakes and ponds, the more important being: Mochla by Kamien, Peperzyn, Smielow, Lutow, Wiecborsk, Sempelborsk, Pieczyn, Niechorz, Cerekwik, Radon and Wlosciborsk. Communication is made easier by the many roads and two railways: Pilsko-Tczew railway with the stations: Krajenka, Złotowo, Zakrzewo, and Lipka and the Chojnic-Nakiel railway with the stations: Wiecbork, Sepolin and Kamien. In 1858, the county population was 54148 (31243 Protestant, 19868 Catholic, 3037 Jew); mother tongue for 39291 was German, for 14,816 Polish, and 41 were dumb.

In 1875, there were 63,853 people in the county and in 1880 the number had risen to 67,119. In 1885, there were 64,717 inhabitants (31,589 male, 33,128 female). 51,934 were born in the county. 37,444 were Protestant, 25,027 Catholic, 1 non-conformist, 2,245 Jew. In 1890, there were 65,156 people (37,482 Protestant, 25,584 Catholic, 11 other religions, 2,079 Jew). The county’s income and expenditure for 1894 was 250,500 marks and in 1896 it still had a debt of 800,400 marks. The county had 104 schools with 176 classes in 1886. 7,216 Protestant, 4,682 Catholic and 437 Jewish children attended them. The staff was made up of: 114 Protestant, 54 Catholic and 4 Jewish. There are 5 towns: Złotowo, (in 1885 had 3,880 inhabitants), Kamien (1,703), Krajenka (3,218), Wiecbork (1,688), Sepolno (3,639); 107 village communes; 70 domanial areas. The largest landed property, not only in the county, but also in the whole of western Prussia, is the Złotow Prince property. It covers an area of 2,5031.34 hectares of which 9,554.13 is plough land, 1,551.67 meadow, and 11,657.94 forest. The taxable net income is 91,424 marks.

The largest settlements are: Tarnowka (1,416), Zakrzewo (1,031) and Swieto (13,289) and the village Debowiec has only 18 inhabitants. There are around 18,000 Poles in the county. During the elections in 1884, a Polish candidate obtained 4,972 votes. For every 1,000 inhabitants there are 742.8 Germans and 256.9 Poles (Polish population in west Prussia in Nadmorski´s Physical Geography Diary IX 1889). Only two manors are in Polish hands: Komierowo (1,140.42 hectares) owned by Komierowski, a Member of Parliament from Niezuchow and Skarpa (338.30 hectares) owned by Jozef Pradzynski. 20 years ago, the Grabowski family owned much property, namely Radawnica (3,342.92 hectares), Buczek (1,741.56 hectares) and Dolnik with Paruszka (859.40 hectares). And the Bojanowski family owned Glubczyn with Rogownica, the village with the church (809.60 hectares) and the Pradzynski family had Waldowo with Adamkow, Teklanow and Waldowek (1,841 hectares).

The settlement commission in the county is working diligently to finally cut cross the piece of land joining the county to the Posen Duchy. Main sources: 1). “Der Kreis Flatow” by Schmitt, Thorn 1867 pages 255-250. 2). Bau und Kunstdenk. D. Pr. Westpr., Danzig 1884, pages 415-418. 3). Goldbeck: Topographie des L. Preußen, Marienwerder 1789, page 99. 4). 1867 Diocese Schema page 42.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p.647-648]

This translation, by Jola Jurasinska, is used by permission.

Zwierzyniec

15.) a village in village factory on the Wieprz River.  It is in Zamość powiat, gmina of Zwierzyniec, Parish of Szczebrzeszyn, with a Greek Orthodox Parish in Topolcza.  Lying 24 kilometers Southwest of Zamosc and 20 kilometers Northeast of Bilgoraj.  The nearest railway station is situated in Rejowiec, about 60 kilometers away.  Zwierzyniec is located in a small valley located in the forest covered hills, between whichthe waters of numerous rivers gather to flow into the Wieprz.  These form a large pond on which the settlement arose.  On a island in the pond stands the church, which is a branch of the Parish of Szczebrzeszyn.  In the settlement is found a District Court 3rd Class, District (County) Offices, Postal Administration, a school beginning with 2 classes, the Office of Estate Taxation for the Zamojski Family, a hotel and restaurant, pharmacy, brewery, furniture factory, flooring factory and sawmill, as well as, several shops.  The Officer of Estate Taxation has his residence at a Palace here.  There are also several (tens) of beautiful homes and gardens and stately homes of officials and the officers of industry.  In 1880 there were 12 brick homes, 22 wooden homes, and 440 inhabitants. In 1827, there were 17 homes and 320 inhabitants.  They conduct a weekly market fair.  Factories are found in the tax district.  The sawmill and flooring factory derive wood from the surrounding forests of the District.  Zwierzyniec is also the key centerof the district estates to which belong the manorial farms of: Guciow, Kaweczyn, Kossobudy, and others.  Together with the settlement is also the hunting lodge built on the pond and has existed aready in the XVIIth century.  On the other side of the forest lies the village of Rudka, which is also on the opposite side of the Wieprz River.  Verdum visited this area in 1672 to see the abundant wildlife.  He viewed the area from a high point having a 4 mile overlook.  He saw bucks, does, elk and wild boar.  Amid a garden by the water stands a small palace (Lusthaus {Pleasure House}), belonging to the mother of King Michael.  (FOREIGNERS IN POLAND, Liske, 35.)

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 685]

Researchers of town: Paul Valasek

This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.


Żabie

Żabie, a village in the Kosów district; it is situated 30 km to the south-west of the district court in Kosów; there is a post office loco. The following villages are situated to the east of Żabie: Hryniawa, Krasnoiła, Jasienów Górny (the first village lies in the southern direction, the latter in the northern one). The villages to the north-east of Żabie: Krzyworównia, Brustury and Kosmacz. Worochta which is the hamlet of Mikuliczyn in the Nadwórna district is to the north-west. Żabie is bordered by Hungary in the south-west. The village lies on the Czarny Czeremosz river which is the Prut river tributary. The Czarny Czeremosz river flows along the eastern border and across the north-eastern part of the area and it receives within the village area, on the left bank side, the following streams as its tributaries: Rabenec, Szybeny, Pohorylec, Dzembronia, Bystrzec, Kraśnik, Ilcia; on the right bank side, the streams: Jawora, Zębiwski, Stupejka. The part of the Czarnohora Mountain towers in the south-west. Żabie is one of the largest villages in Galicia because it covers the area of 596.12 square kilometres. The major estate (the Count Skarbek foundation) has 2 morgs of farmland, 34 of meadows and gardens, 509 of pastureland, 50559 of forest; the minor estate has 908 morgs of farmland, 13539 of meadows and gardens, 29483 of pastureland, 7302 of forest. There were 1530 houses in 1890; there were 6216 residents in the district; a detailed analysis: there were 861 houses and 3356 residents in the village of “Żabie-Ilcia” and in its parts: Bagna, Bukowec, Chodak, Czernahora, Hrabowec, Ilcia Dolna, Ilcia Górna, Kosaryszcze, Krasnyj Łuh, Krzywe Pole, Krywec, Pohar Mały, Pohar Wielki; there were 669 houses and 2860 residents in the village of “Żabie-Słupejka” and in its parts: Biłanec, Błychawy, Kręta, Magóra, Puszkar, Senyci, Wypci, Zebiwskie, Żmijeńskie; there were 6 houses and 25 residents in the manorial area of Żabie; there were 5 houses and 18 residents in the manorial area of Żabie Kameralne (5542 Greek Catholics, 59 Roman Catholics, 654 Jews, 3 persons of other religions; 5599 Ruthenians, 57 Poles, 603 Germans). The village belongs to the Roman-Catholic parish in Kosów; to the Greek-Catholic in “Żabie-Ilcia” and in “Żabie-Słupejka”; the deanery of Kosów. There is an Orthodox church in “Żabie-Ilcia” and there is one in “Żabie-Słupejka”. There is a standard school building in each of these two villages. There is also a gmina loan society with the capital of 24.237 Polish zloty. There were four sawmills in 1876 (the reference book: Hołowkiewicz Flora leśna published in Lwów in 1877 p. 32). On the paraffin oil in Żabie read: Jahrbuch der geolog. Reichsanstalt, 1881, p. 159. A number of visitors has been arriving at Żabie since 1880. They are attracted by the picturesque village location in the forested mountains, by the mountain of Czarnohora in the neighbourhood and by the climate which is a bit severe. They stay in the village for long periods. The Tatra Mountains Society (Towarzystwo Tatrzańskie) built an inn here and the board of estate administration built a number of inexpensive houses. Peasants also share their houses with the visitors. Lu[dwik] Dz[iedzicki]

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, pp.711-712]

 

This translation, by Jaromir Iwanciow, is used by permission.


Żerków

Żerków, in documents Zirkow, Syrkowe, a town in Jarocin powiat, at a distance of about 12 km from Jarocin, 33 km to the south of Września, has a civil records office, post office, railroad station (on the territory of the village of Chrzan) on the Gniezno-Jarocin line, Lutheran schools and parish, Catholic parish in Żółkowo, court in Września and Gniezno. The town territory encompasses 576 hectares, 169 homes, 1989 souls (1609 Catholics, 135 Lutherans, 245 Jews). Names of fields have been preserved in the territory of Żerków: Kune góry, Garczary; (names) of meadows: Ostrówki, Rzeźnikowskie Doły. Żerków lies to the southwest of Pyzdry. The coat of arms of the town is a golden boat in a red field, with a golden star above the boat. A huge prehistoric cemetery, on an area of 40 morgs of sandy ground, discovered during construction of a highway in 1866 2 kilometers towards Jarocin, witnesses to the antiquity of the settlement. Among other items, a Roman coin was found there from the epoch of Caesar Valerius Maximian, which is found in the collections of the Society of the Friends of Science (Towarszystwo Przyajaciół Nauk) of Poznań. People have called these graves Aryan.

 

Żerków appeared on the scene in the year 1257. According to the work of Father Łukaszewicz, a castellan's castle stood here once, which burned in the year 1382, together with a separate Jewish district and a synagogue from the time of Bolesław Wstydliwy, which was later rebuilt during the time of the Jagiełłos. In nearby Żółkowo there is also an old castle. In documents from the year 1370 there is clear mention of a "castrum in Zirkow." The local synagogue apparently stood until the year 1861, and the learned Rabbi Abraham who was the official there asserted that there were tombstones in the Jewish cemetery that were 600 years old.

 

In the year 1283, Żerków is a town falling under the jurisdiction of Kalisz. Around the year 1372, the lord of Żerków was Wawrzyniec Zaręba, the castellan of Poznań and also of Ostrowo. He belonged to the Poznań confederation, created on behalf of the king by Maciej, the wojewoda of Poznań. In the bloody struggles of the Nałęczes with the Grzymalites (the Nałęczes were a noble family in western Poland, the Grzymalites were the king's knights, they fought in the late 1300s over who should succeed to the Polish throne), the town was destroyed. Originally built on the Lutynia river, it was rebuilt "on the hill" according to a charter from the year 1386.

 

In the year 1388, Wawrzyniec Zaręba built the church of St. Stanisław on the site of the former Ostrowo castle. After Zaręba, the lord of Żerków was Janusz Doliwa Kot, known as Furman (the Carter), because he conducted trade and sent his wagons to Leipzig, Bremen, Nurnberg, and Hamburg. During the tenure of Kot, Żerków constituted one estate with Dębno . Barbara Pępowska Gozdawa from Dębno brought Żerków around the year 1595 to Jan Roszkowski, who after her death married Katarzyna Złotkowska, the daughter of the castellan of Biechowo. Jan Roszkowski was born in the year 1575, became the castellan of Poznań in the year 1613, died in Żerków in the year 1613, having returned to the bosom of the Catholic Church, from which he had separated. According to local tradition, while he was chasing hares with his hounds, he fell from his horse and died on the manor grounds in the vicinity of today's stables. On this spot a shrine of the Lord's Passion was erected, which was taken down during the tenure of the starosta's wife Mycielska, the bricks being used to construct another one near the road to Jarocin.

 

After Jan's death, his older brother Andrzej z Górki Roszkowski took possession of the property, who with Anna ze Słomowa Słomowska left a daughter, who married Ostroróg, the royal cup-bearer. Andrzej died in the year 1615, also from an unnatural death.

 

After the Roszkowskis, the Radomicki-Kotwiczes from Radomicko inherited Żerków. The first of them, Hieronim, the castellan of Krzywin, the starosta of Wschowa, and finally the wojewoda of Inowrocław, was married to Ujejska the countess of Gryf, and then a second time to Barbara the daughter of Hieronim from Kretków. He died in the year 1652. He used to break iron horseshoes and stop windmills in their tracks. His son Kazimierz Władysław, the castellan of Kalisz, the starosta of Mosina, died in Żerków in the year 1689. He had two wives: Zofia of the Ossowskis, and Bukowiecka.

 

His son Maciej, the castellan of Kalisz and wojewoda of Kalisz and Inowrocław, became in the end the wojewoda of Poznań and the starosta of Międzyrzecz and Wielkopolska. His daughter Katarzyna married Jerzy Felicyan Sapieha in Lachowice, and the estate of Żerków to his house. Sapieha, a cruel lord (died 1742), left a daughter Maryanna, who married Ignacy Koźmiński, the count of Poraj. He, in the year 1748, handed over the estate in lease to Wojciech Miaskowski. Living unhappily with his wife, Koźmiński removed himself to the monastery in Ołobok, where his sister was the superior. Here his wife found him, and she ordered her servants to beat him so much that he died of the wounds in the year 1760. The widow that same year married Ludwik z Lubrańca Dąmbski, the wojewoda of Brześć Kujawski. Dąmbski died suddenly in Graboszewo, according to rumors the victim of a poisoning. The Lady Maryanna moved to Wschowa, where she was the starościna (starosta's wife or widow).

 

After her death, the estate fell to Ludwika, the daughter of Ignacy and Maryanna of the Sapieha-Koźmińskis. On her mother's orders, she was married to Sokolnicki. He treated her cruelly, from which came a divorce, and the divorcee married Makary Gorzeński, whom she also divorced. Dying in the year 1808, she left Żerków to the Jaraczewski brothers: Jozef and Hieronim. In the year 1812, Michał Mycielski from Chocieszewice bought Żerków for 965,000 Polish złoty. His widow after him, known as Mycielska the starosta's wife, managed her property well, and in the year 1850 after her death, it was acquired by Count Stanisław Mycielski. Due to the extravagance of the owners, in the year 1862, Żerków together with Dębno passed into the hands of the Jews Goetz, Cohn, and Rohr. Two years prior, on the 11th of September of the year 1860, the citizens of the entire duchy (800 people) gathered in Żerków to honor Władysław Niegolewski, to whom the silver citizen's crown was offered for exposing the swindles of Baerensprung, and for his stepping forth with a public interpellation in Berlin.

 

Today Żerków is the property of the King of Prussia. The annals of the town do not offer any more facts worthy of attention.

 

From church documents we learn that in the year 1510 there were in Żerków 10 1/2 settled lans and 5 empty lans. From these lans, fertons were paid to the bishop of Poznań. There were also 3 mills, a grange, and 6 ponds. Two millers, each of whom had 1 measured lan, paid 5 grosze each to the vicar of the church of St. Stanisław. An inventory of the bishop's income from the year 1564 indicates 11 1/2 settled lans, which paid 12 fertons in tithes. The old privileges of the town were renewed by Andrzej Górka, and in the year 1550 he reaffirmed the statute of the potter's guild. Górka lived in nearby Majków, and here in the year 1574 he received (King) Henryk Walezy as he passed by. The tax registers for the year 1578 mention in Żerków only 6 1/2 settled lans. The town paid 10 Polish złoty in royal taxes, and numbered 17 cobblers, 8 potters, 5 tailors and the same number of innkeepers, 4 butchers, 4 tenants ("komornik" - people living in another's home, often farmhands or parents who have signed over the property to their children), 3 furriers, 3 blacksmiths, 2 salt dealers, 2 coopers, 2 bakers, 1 wheelwright, 1 barber, 1 linen merchant, 1 locksmith, 1 shepherd.

 

In the years 1618-1620, the town paid 6 złoty in royal taxes and 25 złoty 6 grosze in other taxes from 5 1/2 settled lans, and 2 butchers paid 1 złota each, 21 artisans paid 15 grosze each, 2 tenants ("komornik") 6 grosze each, and a millwheel 24 grosze. Later sources indicate that the inhabitants from their properties, fields, gardens, and meadows, worked off their feudal dues for a few days a week in the manor's granges. Bakers paid 150 Polish złoty annually for the privilege to conduct trade, butchers paid 100 złoty, 5 millers paid 180 Polish złoty, each potter was required to give 15 pots of various types at each fair for the privilege of taking clay from the manor's lands, vodka and liquor distilleries 960 złoty, tavern keepers selling mead, liquor, and double-proof vodkas 200 Polish złoty, 27 Polish złoty 6 grosze for the privilege of brewing beer in the town maltworks, and also, for each brewing of 18 barrels of beer, they had to prepare 2 barrels of manorial beer and to pay this amount to the manor. In selling houses, fields, gardens, and meadows, the inhabitants paid the lord a tenth grosz, or the so-called "laudemium". The income from the fair tax from merchants bringing their goods went exclusively to the manor.

 

The Jewish district paid thus: each farmer 16 Polish złoty and each tenant ("komornik") 8 Polish złoty annually, Jewish butchers paid 300 Polish złoty in two installments. This state of affairs lasted practically intact until the year 1820, after which the introduction of rents changed everything. From then on, the inhabitants stopped paying dues to the manor, and by substituting rent for dues, they acquired a status entirely independent of the manor, but on the other hand, state taxes increased. There is also a note that in the year 1765, the Jews of Żerków paid 152 Polish złoty per capita.

 

Near Żerków there was a gallows, from which one can infer that if not the town, then the lord had the right to pronounce capital punishment. On the nearby hills, known as the Łyse Góry (Bald Hills), witches supposedly gathered.

 

Towards the end of the last century (the late 1700s), Żerków numbered 25 homes and 701 inhabitants, including 111 Jews, 13 cobblers, 12 tailors, 11 tavernkeepers, 10 bakers and 10 potters, 8 millers, 6 wool carders, 5 coopers and 5 wheelwrights, 3 butchers, 3 carpenters and 3 blacksmiths, 2 furriers and 2 innkeepers, 1 parchment maker (or sheepskin processor), 1 capmaker, 1 locksmith, 1 barber, 1 musician, 1 cattle dealer, 1 leather dealer, and 1 merchant.

 

In the year 1809 Żerków had 700 souls, in 1811 it had 714 souls with 113 homes, in 1837 it had 1,367 souls and 120 homes, in 1843 it had 146 homes and 1,420 souls, that is 914 Catholics, 73 Protestants, and 433 Jews, in 1846 it had 1,585 souls, that is 1,088 Catholics, 134 Protestants, 363 Jews, in 1867 it had 1,819 souls, in 1871 it had 160 homes and 1,912 souls.

 

Żerków has produced 2 contemporary learned Jews: the Hebraist Dr. Fuerst and the Jewish historian Dr. Graetz.

 

The origins of the parish church under the patronage of St. Stanisław are unknown. Allegedly it was erected by Andrzej Górka Roszkowski (died 1555). In the years 1600 to 1610, there was already a brick church here, described in detail during the visit of Kacper Hap, the archdeacon of Szrem (Śrem). In the years 1717-1718, a new church, still existing today, stood on the ruins of the old, funded by Maciej Radomicki, made of fired brick. The Franciscan Adam Schwarz, contemporary to this building, painted the vaults al fresco, depicting scenes from the life of St. Stanisław. The main altar has a picture of this same saint. In the altar is a tabernacle with figures on copperplate. The church doors have fine-wrought antique locks. On the left side of the church, this same Schwarz painted images of the founders, the Radomickis, as if attending to the services from their beds. A similar painting by this same artist represents the figures of Luther and Melanchton, watching the altar scoffingly as if behind a grate (or behind bars).

 

In the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary there are two tombstones in the shape of altars, dedicated to the memory of the Roszkowski brothers, who died in 1613 and 1615. Their bodies, laid in double oak and tin coffins, gilded on the exterior and decorated with coats of arms, used to stand alongside the tombstones. In more recent times, Father Michniewicz removed the remains from the coffins, buried them in the cemetery, and placed the tin coffins in the church storeroom. From there, dented and stripped of decorations, they were sold in the year 1850 for 242 Polish złoty, which was used for the church's exterior decoration. On the church walls hang silverplates with many images of members of the families who owned Żerków, and in the storeroom are their sarcophagi.

 

Another church, wooden, under the patronage of St. Mikołaj, stands in the town. At one time it was a separate parish. It was already in existence in the year 1510. For some time this church was in the hands of the Protestants, to whom it was given by Jan Górka Roszkowski (died 1613). The minister of the church was Stanisław Grodziecki. After a fire in the year 1768, Łukasz Jezierski, the town vicar, raised a new wooden church in the shape of a cross in the year 1773. The Chapel of the Holy Cross stands 300 paces behind the parish church, on a hill, in the middle of the cemetery. It was erected from collections in the year 1708. The impetus for its erection was supposedly a miraculous appearance of a fiery cross in the year 1708 during a plague.

 

The school near the church was in existence in the years 1610 and 1683. The hospital stands at the foot of the church hill. Hieronim Radomicki (died 1642) earmarked funds for supporting 15 poor people. The new hospital was built around the year 1700 by the efforts of the pastor and the lord of the manor. The Prussian government, taking this hospital under its care, wanted to change it to a secular institution, but as a result of the efforts of the church authorities, it was recommended in the year 1859 that the hospital be donated to the parish church. The hospital property consists of 33 morgs of fields, meadows, 1,000 talers in capital, perpetual lease of a windmill, 48 wiertels of rye, 34 wiertels of oats, gathered from BieŻdŻadów.

 

The parish of Żerków, of the deanery of Nowe Miasto nad Wartą, 3,468 souls. The chronicle of the church in Żerków from the year 1600 was written by Father Maksymilian Łukaszewicz (Pam. Relig.-moralny, the year 1856, volume 3).

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 780-782]

 

This translation is used by permission.


Żurawienko

Żurawienko, a village in Rohatyn county, 30 km. southwest of Rohatyn, 21 west of the county court in Bursztyn, 11 west of Bukaczowce. To the northwest lies Nowoszyn, to the northeast Wiszniow, to the east Kozara, to the south Kotoryny and Manasterzec, to the west Zurawno (the last three are in Zydaczow county). The Dniestr flows along the southern border. The villages' building lie in its valley. The major estate [i. e., that owned by nobles] has 3 [morgs] of farmland, 19 of meadows and gardens, 91 of pastures, and 826 of forest; the minor estate has 197 of farmland, 178 of meadows and gardens, 123 of pastures, and 5 of forest. In 1890 there were 62 houses, 456 inhabitants in the gmina (432 Greek Catholic, 19 Roman Catholic, 15 Jews; 436 Rusyns, 5 Poles, 15 Germans). The Roman Catholic parish is in Bukaczowce, the Greek Catholic in Kozara. There is a church [an Orthodox cerkiew, not a Catholic kosciol] in the village, as well as a 1-class school and a loan society with capital of 2,289 Rhenish zlotys.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 860]

 

Researchers: Lisa Terlecki

 

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Żurów [now Zhurov, Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, Ukraine]

Żurów – A town in the county of Rohatyn, located 18 kilometers Southwest of Rohatyn, 15 kilometers northwest of the county judiciary in Bursztyn, 8 kilometers northwest of the post office in Bukaczowce.  To the Northwest lies Hrehorow, to the north Podmicalowce and Wasiuczyn, to the east Kolokolin, to the south is Czerniów, to the southwest is Wiszniów.  The town lies on the Swirz a tributary of the Dniestr River.  In the river valley lie the buildings of the town, on the west of which is Teodorowka.  The second part of the town (Zurow II) lies about 9 kilometers to the Northwest of Zurow (part I) and neighbors on the west with Holeszow, on the north with Molodynia, on the east with Wiszniowa, and on the south with Zurawna (in the county of Zydaczow).  The large landed estate has 565 morgs of cultivated fields, 440 in meadows and gardens, 64 in pasture, and 1777 morgs in forest.  The smaller landed estate has 377 morgs in cultivated fields, 315 in meadow and gardens, and 12 morgs in pasture.  In 1880 there were 108 dwellings and 723 inhabitants in the town, 15 dwellings and 90 inhabitants in the area of the manor, divided with, 10 dwellings and 64 inhabitants in Zurow part I, and 5 dwellings and 26 inhabitants in Zurow part II (of the total 349 were Greek Orthodox, 260 were Roman Catholic, 202 were Jewish, and 2 of other denomination; with 479 Poles and 334 Russians).  The Roman Catholic parish is in the town and belongs to the deaconate of Dolina and the Archdiocese of Przemysl.  The parish was founded in 1621 by Mikołaj Danilowicz.  To the parish belong the villages of: Bortniki, Czerenchow, Hrehorow, Jawcze, Jozefowka, Kolokolin, Lukowiec, Oskrzesince, Ostrow, Podmichalowce, Wasiuczyn with Olchowa, and Wierzbica.  The brick parish church was consecrated in 1774 in honor of St. Stanislaus.  The Greek Orthodox parish is located in the town and belongs to the deaconate of Zurawien.  To this parish belong the villages of Podmichalowce and Cierkiew and the church is dedicated to St. Dymitri.  Here is also located a I class school, a loan office for the township with assets of 3221 Russian zloty, and a distillery.  The Latin parish originally with a pointed arch was established in 1568 under a ancestor of Danilowicz, and was destroyed by fire and remained in ruin until 1668 when Mikolaj Danilowicz gave an inventory of the present church.  It was recorded in the place which read: “Nicholas Danilowicz, the Kings of Poland’s Supreme representative at this place, became the founder of a church consecrated on 15 September 1621 A. D...”  In 1816 the church was closed due to disrepair.  Restoration was under lease holder of the estate, Bartlomiej Małuja and pastor, Antoni Tarnawski.  The arch in the Gothic presbytery in the nave of the former archway was removed and the boards were saved which were used flat.  The brick buttresses that support the whole building, especially the entry, above which rose the steeple.  Inside the church in the presbytery altar are the beautiful wood carving works, and in the nave are two altars, one of which I for use during Greek Orthodox services.  In the presbytery on the left side of the main altar, against the door leading to the sacristy, is located a wall of beautiful statues representing the period and in the dress of the XVIth century, given in life size in a lying position, with the head looking toward the nave, and carved from alabaster, which is hard to find in this area.

 

The dedication tablet from the previous restoration was lost.  Among the inventory had to be the tomb of Konstancja Danilowicz.  She was the sub-prefect of Parczew, widow of Malachowski, who was sub-prefect of Smotryck, and then the wife of Jan Potocki, Assistant Master of the Pantry in Kiev.  She lived in the second half of the XVIIth  century.  To the union of Jan Potocki and Konstancja Danilowicz were born a son, Teodor who married the daughter of Sapiecha a Chancellor in the Kingdom of Lithuania. An oil painted portrait  on canvas of Jan Potocki is suspended on the wall opposite his tomb, (refer to MEMORIAL TO KONSTANCJA DANILOWICZ IN THE CHURCH OF THE LATIN RITE IN ZUROW, given by Dr. J. Szaraniewicz, in the Archeological Journal, Lwow, 1882, page 22).  The town of Zurow was formerly called “Dzurow” and was established on a charter from Zygmunt I, to Michal Danilowicz  in 1510 and since has been written by the Danilowicz family as Zurow.  From this family came the mother of Jan Sobieski.  Teofila, daughter of Jan Danilowicz was Palatine of Russia.

 

2) Żurów - a colony belonging to Huta in the county of Odolanow.  It has its district administrative office, civil office, post office, parish church and district court in Odolanow; a railway station in Ostrow; and a school in Huta.  It has 5 dwellings and 28 souls.

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p.867-868]

 

This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.


Żyrardów

Żyrardów, manufacturing settlement near the Pisia river (the right tributary of the Bzura river), located in błoński district, township and parish in the same location, by the Warszawa-Vienna rail road , near the Ruda Guzowata station, in the distance of 6 miles from Warszawa (Warsaw), alongside the road going from Mszczonów to Wiskitki by the rail road. The settlement has the catholic parish church made of brick, the evangelical prayer house, manufacturing school with several grades for boys and girls, two district elementary schools, township court of the 4th region, day care center for 1500 children financed by the manufacture, the manufacture hospital, local pharmacy and 3 manufacture doctors, 426 homes, 26,500 inhabitants ( including 8,000 manufacture workers). The manufacture compounds includes: linen yarn mill (23,000 spindles), mechanical weaving workshop (2100 looms), manual weaving workshop (200 looms), cotton yarn mill (18000 spindles), wool yarn mill (4200 spindles), hosiery manufacture (700 machines), 4 bleacheries with auxiliary equipment. About 8000 workers work for the manufacture. Mostly, they are Poles. Two steam mills. The name and establishment of the settlement came from the well known inventor of the weaving machines Frenchman Philip Girard, who according to a contract signed with the government of the Kingdom of Poland in 1825, setup the first in Poland weaving manufacture opened in 1835 in Marymont and run by the firm called Karol Scholtz et camp. with the following partnership: Józef Lubowicki, Counts Henryk and Jan Łubieński and Piotr Steinkeller. In 1933 the manufacture was relocated to the settlement which was established in the area of the Guzów property (at the time owned by Łubieński family) and named after Girard: Żyrardów. The Polish Bank supported financially, in the troubled times (after 1831), the new manufacture lending 3,000,000 Polish Złotych in the form of partial loans. Finally, the Bank was forced to overtake the company and owned it eventually. From 1847 till 1856 the company was run by the Bank’s own administration. The experiment failed and the Bank had to sell the manufacture to businessmen Hielle and Dietrich from Shoenlinde in Czech. Among other favors the Bank gave them the loan of 135,000 Silver Rubles. Since then can be seen at first slow then later faster, expansion of the manufacture which eventually became one of the biggest weaving enterprises in the world. In 1865, it has two steaming machines, one with 150 horsepower and the other with 70 horsepower, 7500 spindles, 500 looms and up to 1,000 workers. The surface covered by the workshop with looms was 10,000 square łokieć = 3,317.76 square meters. In 1876, were 13,000 spindles, 1,000 mechanical and 80 manual looms, 3350 workers (850 foreigners). The value of yearly production was 1,560,000 Silver Rubles.

 

In1880, there were 16,000 spindles, 1,650 mechanical and 200 manual looms, using the power of the steaming machines with 700 horsepower consuming 960,000 puds = 24,000 pounds of coal. At the time there were 5,600 workers including 580 foreigners. The value of yearly production was 2,200,000 Silver Rubles. The value of materials used for the production was 700,000 Silver Rubles. Now production exceeds 5,000,000 Silver Rubles. Auxiliary workshops are located in Jaktorów for many years (the station at Warsaw-Vienna railroad) 1 mile from the main manufacture. In 1885, “Towarzystwo akcyjne zakładów żyrardowskich Hiellego i Dittricha” (Shareholders Association of the Żyrardów Manufacture Hielle & Dittrich) was established with the start-up capital 9,000,000 Silver Rubles. Karol Diettrich, a son of the firm founder, became the President of the Association. The firm has its own warehouses in Warsaw and other main cities of the Russian Empire. The firm products are sold in the Kaukaz and Russian Asia markets. The Żyrardów parish was separated from the Wiskitki parish. The Żyrarów township belongs to the township court of the 4th region, Post office, Railway station in Ruda Guzowata. The township has the area of 11,057 mórg = 6,190.5 hectares (3310 mórg = 1,853.18 hectars of forest) and 27,000 inhabitants. In 1890, there were 19,074 inhabitants. Out of the total of the inhabitants 7,967 were permanent and 11,107 temporary (including 1,433 subjects of foreign states). Among registered permanent inhabitants 2 were Orthodox believers, 1,852 Protestants, 411 Jews, 207 other denomination.

 

In 1867, the whole township had 5839 inhabitants. In 1880, there were 7126 registered permanent inhabitants (5,134 Catholics, 1,541 Protestants, 244 Jews, 207 other denomination). The following settlements and villages belong to the township: Grądy, Feliksów, Henryków, Józefów, Kozłowice Stare and Nowe, Maryampol, Piotrowina, Ruda Guzowska, Sade Budy, Sokule, Szyszka, Teklinów, Tomaszów Stary and Nowy, Żyrardów. Information sources and illustrations from “Tygodnik Ilustrowany”, 1872 (volume 9, 32) and “Kłosy” (volume 6, 24). Br. Ch.(Bronisław Chlebowski)

 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14, p. 894]

 

This translation, by Jarek Gajewski, is used by permission.

  
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